Zhao et. al. (2007) has given hydro-mechanical reverse deep drawing of cylindrical cups with axial pushing effect. The axial pushing force is exerted on the brim of the blank by a pushing ring, this reduces radial tensile stress at the sidewall an d the risk of occurring fracture can be reduced considerably. The radial stress at punch-die zone increases with friction and bending, this reduces tangential stresses and so reduces wrinkling. also loading capacity of sidewall is increased because of strain hardening effect.
The finite element simulation for hydro-mechanical reversed deep drawing method has been done successfully with DYNAFORM-PC code combining with modifying load mask keyword manually. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulation results.Atrian amir et. al.
(2013) has investigated the effect of various parameters on deep drawing of laminated sheets. The exp erimental and finite element studies of the deep drawing method of steel/brass laminated sheets are performed to show places of tearing for bimetal cup. A linear relation was obtained between the initial blank diameter and the maximum necessary force. Ouakdi et. al. (2012) has investigated the effect of holding force and die radius in a stretch bending test on spring-back.
an experimental set up has been developed to find the effect of holding force and die radius on stretching depth. For analysis, the drawn half has been divided into 3 critical regions or zones. 1st zone which is curved takes the shape of cylindrical stretching rod. Second zone subjected to thickness variation that is slightly serpentine owing to residual stresses.
Third zone is highly deformed by the stretching effort and bending due to the entrance curvature of the die. The results show that an increase in blank holder force reduces sliding of the sheet between the die and also the blank holde r and reduces spring-back by increasing the tension. it has also been observed that the larger the entrance radius of the die, the smaller the final spring-back and spring-back decreases in a non-linear fashion with stretching height. The evaluation of spring-back by the stretching height is in agreement with that by the angular orientation of the extremity.Blank shapeMolotnikov et.
al.(2012) has investigated the size effect on maximum load and limit drawing ratio for deep drawing of copper. Numerical analysis and experimental analysis have been done to study the effect of ratio of blank thickness to gra in size on blank thickness. Through mathematical modelling and experimental work it’s been suggested that size effe ct play an important role in deep drawing when grain size kept constant and dimensions of work -piece get reduced. This analysis has suggested the dislocation density based model to take under consideration for the effect of the specimen dimensions on its mechanic al response.
Fazil et. al. (2012) has planned iteration based mostly algorithm to optimize blank form. in the planned algorithm the process modelled with initial blank form. the specified contours compared with contours obtained at the top of deformation.
The deviation of the obtained contour from the required contour is measured and blank shape is modified using the blank optimization algorithm and method analyzed again. Repeatedly the method minimizes the deviation at every boundary node. in this planned methodology the initial blank is optimized based on the shape error and also the deformation path length of the boundary nodes. Talic et.
al. (2009) has determined an optimum blank shape that has not caused earing. in this researc h the forming method has been simulated using Abacus CAE. Blank shape influences forming load, material requirement and risk of defects. it has been concluded that optimum blank shape reduces forming load, increases forming limits and reduces possibilit ies of wrinkling and tearing.
Lang et. al. (2009) has simulated hydro-forming method using LS-DYNA3D to determined optimized blank form and also the impact of punch pressure. The simulated results are validated experimentally on a 550 -ton double-action sheet hydro-forming press. aluminiumalloy 2B06 (China brand) has been used with thickness 1.
5mm. The results show that, pressure curve is quit near optimized one.