YonairaDelgado PHIL106Prof. Justin HoltDate:12/19/17WordCount:1155Philosophy: The Republic and OnLibertyIntroductionThis paper will arguethat Plato’s position on the political abilities of the many is mistaken. Tosupport this thesis, this paper will consider Plato’s ship image from book 6 ofthe Republic. The paper will proceed as follows. First, some introductory commentson the political philosophy of Plato and his use of conceptual analysis andcritical evaluation of beliefs to help decide the right and wrong ideas. It canbe suggested that political philosophy was Plato’s area of concern.
Today the underthe influenceof the analytic philosophy of the twentieth century, political philosophy isstill often is used to clarify the political concepts and hence seen as aconceptual analysis of these concepts. In the next part of the paper, Mill’sphilosophical outlook has been reviewed which suggest that his picture of themind of the world relies on a functional account of knowledge. In the last partof the paper Strauss’s interpretation of the political philosophy of Plato work”The Republic” has been discussed which is wide-ranging in scope yet compact inimplementation.1. Relationship between knowledge andpolitics for Plato and MillConcepts of the words canbe understood by their meanings.
For example, using general words to understandthe political terms like freedom, power, state, and democracy, different thingsand meanings are signed and applied to them. For Plato it helps in mentalclearance to clarify the concepts and meaning which is the conceptual analysisof those political terms. After this comes, critical evaluation of beliefs, whichhelps to identify the right and wrong incompatible ideas.Example:”That’s what education should be,” I said, “the art oforientation. Educators should devise the simplest and most effective methods ofturning minds around. It shouldn’t be the art of implanting sight in the organ,but should proceed on the understanding that the organ already has thecapacity, but is improperly aligned and isn’t facing the right way.” (Plato)? Plato, RepublicFor Plato it is importantto make the right decisions when choosing the political order in peace. Suchpolitical decisions are important just like any decision made during warrelated to the political order.
Only public opinion cannot help in makingimportant decisions which prove to be wrong as seen in many political disastersrecorded in the history. Concepts clarification is the main step according toPlato’s political philosophy. This clarification helps in evaluating correctbeliefs which help in finding out the answers to the questions regarding themost accurate political order. The relationship exists between the criticalevaluation of beliefs and analysis of the concepts in the Plato’s Republic. Themain aim of this analysis is not only to find a correct verbal definition, butalso to reach right and substantial belief.
The linguistic practice of the word”justice,” is not the question about the word justice but mainly about thething to which this word “justice” refers. Account of knowledge ofMill depends mainly on the general picture of world, mind and theirrelationship. Therefore it depends on a theory. Mill claims that human beingsare completely part of nature and it should be kept in mind that Mill has noidea about this. Mill commit this claim and his unsupported starting point, andthis is a substantive claim.
In his book On Liberty, he emphasizes the importanceof originality and autonomy. He does not focus on the significance of theexperiences but on the value of being a certain way.Example:”If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person were of thecontrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that oneperson, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.”(John).? John Stuart Mill, OnLibertyMill uses differentstrategies to make arguments and discussion for freedom of thought, freedom ofaction and freedom of character. Though such arguments overlap, they have to becautiously unpicked if weaknesses and strengths are to be appreciated.Throughout his book “On Liberty,” Mill seems concerned about the waysto preserve the freedom of people from the threat of more treacherous forms ofpublic pressure and not only in the face of the threat of state or legislativeintimidation.
Mill believes that people are themselves free to form opposedopinions about the others’ character.2. Leo Strauss’ interpretation of theRepublic in his book The City And ManThe City and Man by LeoStrauss constitute the provoking essays on “Politics” of Aristotle,Thucydides’ “Peloponnesian Wars”, and Plato’s “Republic”.
This book is a remarkable effort to use classical political philosophy as a wayto liberate modern political philosophy from the stronghold of ideology.Intimate and extensive familiarity with the works are the basis of Strauss’essays. The City and Man by Leo Strauss seem at first to be an upfront continuanceof all his previous work which was about the enunciation of the theological-politicalproblem. The ancients advanced by way of the double negative and therefore wererightly liberating while Modernism lives and thinks in the part of denial andhence parasitically. The most important part of the Strauss’ book is the partin which he deals with the Plato’s Republic philosophy and which Aristotlelegitimately disregards in his critical analysis of the Republic.
Politicalphilosophy is the eccentric core of philosophy.Example:”It is not self-forgetting and pain-loving antiquarianism nor self-forgettingand intoxicating romanticism which induces us to turn with passionate interest,with unqualified willingness to learn, toward the political thought ofclassical antiquity. We are impelled to do so by the crisis of our time, thecrisis of the West.” (Leo)? Leo Strauss, The City,and ManThe essay on Plato’Republic is a full-scale argument of the political philosophy of Plato,wide-ranging in scope and compact in implementation. Strauss interpretation ofthe Republic is the crossing of the extreme cases of Socrates ideal andnon-ideal silent dialogues on political philosophy. It could be argued that thecommon welfare does not need to share the knowledge and the issue of thejustice is the issue of the common good.
It would be sufficient if, the common welfarewere the sharing in the quest for knowledge. Moreover, the Republic is itselfthe model of the city because it talks about justice.ConclusionThis paper has shown therelationship between knowledge and politics for Plato and Mill as discussed intheir books “The Republic” and “On Liberty.” This paper hasalso discussed Leon Strauss’ interpretation of the Republic in his book TheCity And Man which is a remarkable effort to use classical political philosophyas a way to liberate modern political philosophy from the stronghold ofideology. Works Cited John, Stuart, Mill.
On Liberty. 1859. Leo, Strauss. The City and Man. The University Press of Virginia, 1964. Plato. Republic. 381 BC.