When the child starts to gain language? Hestarts earlier than most of us think and ends much later than we think too,because there is an end of sound and grammar acquisition, but there is alwayssome new world learn, therefore, language acquisition is an ongoing processthat accompanied us through the different stages of life.The child starts learning language byimitation and exploring through babbling, then he uses a one word sentence, next a two wordsentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his languagewhich is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing skills too.Many scientists studied languages acquisition and developed theories aboutvocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicableonly to the English language, but also to other languages too.
Literacy is notrestrained in its use in education or at work, it is part of our everyday lifein malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacypractice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use oflanguage, to have confidence in delivering his messages properly in written andspoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to theimage he wants to deliver to the people around him.The orthography system of the English hasits downsides which cause some difficulties that the child needs to conquer tohave a good command over the language, but it has its upsides that simplify thelearning of this language. Currently, English is an international language thatis not just used by native speakers but also by non-native speakers. Throughthe course of learning English there areidentical or divergent problems that both speakers face because two third ofthe children around the world are born in bilingual environment.The language was among the first inventionsof the human being, it has its various systems that represent people’s identityand history that has been passed on through generations. Allowing the newgenerations to express their own time by their own terms gives the language newwords and uses, causing the language to change constantly according to people’sneed. The theories about language acquisition werean effort of many scientists that study one language perspective at the timegrammar ,discourse…etc.
Getting those bits and pieces into the jigsaw oflanguage acquisition gives us the big picture and its complexity and wondering nature. Language is amean of communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. The need of a spokenlanguage emerged first by making sounds that represent pictures which addressthe auditory system, then letters and words that address the ophthalmic systemof the human being. The necessity of a writing system aroused from the need torecord events and communicate it with different people across the differentperiod of time. Different writing systems were developed across the word whichvaries in its complexity.
(Webster,1806) It relates, letters, syllables and sentenceto communicate language through speaking and writing. Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the childstarts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connectionbetween spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver themeaning of the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.ca). Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”(www.
cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the properletter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com) . The English language is asyllabic language and has its characteristics,: it consists of twenty-sixletters written from right to left in a sideways top to bottom. In a perfectlanguage every letter corresponds to a sound, however, some of them correspondwith more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).
The inconsistencies in the Englishorthography made English a challenging language to acquire even for childrenwho are mono-lingual English native speakers, because many inconsistencies werenot just at the level of the letter and their presentation of more than one sound,but also at the level of words too. Historicallythe English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and became aninternational language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or second orforeign language, it came into contact with English like Latin, German, French,Danish which brought many words into the language and changing other wordsmeaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French andItalian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, nowit is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building onwhat is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English isopaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the Englishlanguage causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes theprediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.
(www,youtube.com) There are other difficulties that face not justchildren but adult too, for example some sounds stayed or disappeared ,the /f/sound in words like: cough, enough, through or thought, other sounds were lostat the beginning of the words in words like: wrong and knee, some lettersbecome silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology, Island.
Daughter,furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is pronouncedvegtable (www.thought.com), and some English letters give many differentpronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.
The English orthography stabilized through thecenturies mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helpedin the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document thepronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference betweendifferent standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help todifferentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar, morphemes likeinflections stay the same with different words e.g.
sides, derived. (allington,mayor,2012)Studies in various aspects of language led todevelopment of new methods of teaching the English language based on differentperspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for itsefficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,which depends on the need and the necessity for the child to express hisemotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken andwritten language are closely related literacy becomes a part of a widercommunicative practice, using literacy in this sense involves exchangingknowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essentialrole in the way children acquire language, getting involved in these practicesthat will help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybookreading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)There are many other reasons that affecthow child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, thesociety that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, thelevel of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning, social class, religion, the position of thechild in the family, and how he deals with the difficulties that he faces whichis part of the child psychology.The literacy of the child at an early ageis strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to hisor her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that isintertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices ona frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction oradventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring thelanguage in children is their relationship with their parents and their parentbeliefs about literacy.
Many activities are used by parents at home or in schoolthat facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging childrenin songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting withchildren in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literarytexts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically tolearn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learningand make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed inbilingual communities that is also affected by religion, social class, schoolsparent’s educational level. the bilingual children may have in common impedimentswith native speakers or different problems in learning English for example iftheir other language is written from right to left, not from left to right theymay start writing English from right to left, or they may think about thesubject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch duringwriting.
In the end every child has the right to have the bestof his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life andhaving difficulties in learning and writing should be treated starts as a little human with theability and the need to express his thoughts, ambitions ,furthermore, the rightto define himself as somebody with possibilities.