WFC labour force participation rate for women is

among Female University Teachers of Bangladesh


Outcome of Women Empowerment in Bangladesh

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The Term Work-Family Conflict (WFC) is an outcome of
different factors for example, individual-related, job-related &
family-related factors (Akkas M.A., 2015, p. 2068). Traditionally, WFC
occurs to the male employees but later it got absorbed to some extent with the
help of female participation in family responsibilities. But things are going
to extremely wrong with the increase of female labour participation rate. According
to Quarterly Labour Force Survey Bangladesh 2015-16 (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2017, p. 41), labour force
participation rate for women is still very low in our country as it is only 35.6%
while 81.9% of total is contributed by the male members. It is so tough for
female members of the family to minimize the underlined WFC in the society like
ours. That’s why we will try to have a special focus for the female section of
our society.

as a Career for Female

In most of the countries “Teaching” is thought to be
one of the “Women-friendly” or “Family-friendly” professions because of its
flexibility to deal with. Besides, it is free from the rigid and longer working
hours. Bangladeshi culture hardly allows the female members to work as freely
as their male counterparts. Teaching career compared to other professions, to
some extent, gives that room of autonomy for the female of our country. Like
the discussed earlier, there are many other reasons for which female section is
moving their interest towards this career. The changes can be clearly
understood when we can have a look towards the recent trends of female
participation in teaching career. The percentage of female teachers in
Bangladesh rose 49 to 60% in primary education during 2010-15 and in secondary
and upper secondary education, the percentage has been increased 2% more during
the year 2010-2015 (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BSS), 2017, pp. 25, 34 & 40). Even, Bangladeshi
female teacher has been nominated for Global Teacher Prize 2017. Similar
changing trends are also reflecting even in the case of higher education. A
significant rise was seen in this trend in 2009. The most important example of
this change can be taken from the scenario of University of Dhaka, the most
renowned university of Bangladesh. According to the university administration,
there are 630 female teachers working in DU. In fact, the ratio became 1:3.18
between male and female teachers of the university. Surprisingly, at present,
the heads of our 16 departments are female (Dhaka Tribune Desk, 2017, pp.
para. 1,4,6,8).
The changing scenario is automatically describing the maximum level of
appropriateness of teaching career in the context of Bangladesh.

WFC for Female
University Teachers

It cannot be said that there is no WFC conflict in
any particular profession. It can be managed up-to the highest minimum level
but it cannot be equal to zero. However, the earlier discussion regarding the
appropriateness of teaching career refers to the minimum level of WFC and when
it is the case of university teachers, then, it is lower even than the primary
and secondary school teachers. The university teachers can lead a comfortable
life as they are not bound to any rigid class schedule. Rather, they are free
to reschedule their classes and exam times and sometimes they can interchange
the schedules with their colleagues. Such scopes allow them to enjoy flexible
working hours that help them to reduce role conflict. The minimum level of role
conflict indicates the minimum level of WFC and highest level of work-family
integration (Marks S.R., 1977, pp. 921-936).

In most of the cases, university teachers are also
provided with housing facilities in the university areas. Transportation
facilities are given for those who live outside the campus area. Thus, they can
have much more leisure times to meet the family demands and thus time-based
conflict is reduced to minimum level. Then, their contributions to work and
family also get balanced with the balance of time-based conflict (Evans P., 1984). With the help of
reduced WFC, the different negative consequences of WFC, for example,
individual-specific, job-specific & family-specific consequences get
managed (Akkas M.A., 2015).




Akkas M.A., H. M. (2015). Causes and Consequences of
Work-Family Conflict (WFC) among the Female Employees in Bangladesh: An
Empirical Study. Journal of Business and Economics , Volume 6,
Bureau of Statistics (BSS). (2017). Education Scenario in Bangladesh:
Gender Perspective. Diakonia: Statistics & Informatics Division.
Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Quarterly Labour Force Survey of Bangladesh
2015-16. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Statistics & Informatics Division,
Ministry of Planning.
Dhaka Tribune
Desk. (2017, July 22). Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from
Dhaka Tribune Web site:
Evans P.,
&. B. (1984, January). The changing pictures of the relationship between
career and family. journal of Organigational Behavior , 9-21.
Marks S.R.
(1977). Multiple Roles and Role Strain: Some Notes on Human Energy, time and
Committment. American Sociological Review , 42, No. 6, 921-936.