Chapter 10: The Opening of America (1815-1850)
This period represents immense economic growth in America whereby new inventions, new markets, ideas and changes that would lead the country into success, were made.
After the end of the war in 1812, through the intervention of the government, the market went through some major changes. A new program that was called ‘The New Nationalism’ was initiated. The program included a second bank in America that gave little tariff, as well as a federal aid that helped make internal improvements. The increase in cotton production was one of the prominent contributors to the growth of the economy. The cotton was produced in the Deep South and then sold to England. There was also an expansion in the transport sector. This included the growth and development of steamboats, railroads and canals. In this, the transportation of goods through land became cheaper and regional farming grew.
There was also support from the Supreme Court that encouraged the development of corporations as formal business organizations. The growth in population influenced an increase in the land sales and prices. In order to flow with the growth of economy, urban migration became common. This led to the expansion and development of cities in the country. Because of the growing market, there was a demand for the increase in production. This led to the development of more factories. The first industry to experience this change and was the textile industry, of the North East.
In conclusion, this period saw a demand for economic growth and in result led to new and greater inventions. As the population feared to be left out, it became competitive and strived to keep up with the market.
Chapter 11: The Rise of Democracy (1824-1840)
Theory of Nullification stated that the state was allowed to nullify laws that it saw were unconstitutional. John C. Calhoun proposed the implementation of this rule. The Trail of Tears describes the death of Indians while they were being moved to Nebraska, Oklahoma and Kansas, where according to Andrew Jackson, was the Indian Territory. The Indians were removed from other states in the US in 1838, after they had been forced into giving up their lands.
Andrew Jackson was the president of America at the time. He was popular with the people and was commonly known for the spoils system. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were democratic republicans who founded of the Whig party. The Whig party was the opponent of Andrew Jackson. Apart from this, Daniel Webster, also opposed the Doctrine of Nullification, whereby he claimed it to be of no importance. He received the support of President Jackson. Henry Clay, on the other hand, helped Andrew Jackson rerun for the presidency after John Calhoun withdrew from Jackson’s union. Peggy Eaton was the wife of John Henry Eaton. She worked as a barmaid, and many did not approve of her due to her choice of work.
A. The four components of the New Democratic Political System are the people’s politics, the policy concerning Native Americans, conflicts over the rights of the state and panic and prosperity. The people’s politics allowed the voting of common people. Jackson’s policy on Native Americans stripped them of their lands and forced them to move to other parts of the state. On the conflicts over the rights of the state, Jackson opposed the doctrine of nullification and the tariffs were lowered. In panic and prosperity, Jackson took money from the National bank and moved it to the state banks. This resulted to the collapse of the economy as the dollar lost value.
B. The distribution of wealth is relevant to equality, in that wealth is distributed equally among the poor and the rich. Jackson supported the equality of the rich and the poor.
C. Jackson was hostile to the Second Bank of the United States because he claimed that National Banks possessed too much power and that they mainly focused on the rich.
D. Jackson was more of a racist than a product of his time. He expressed that the Indians were and hence took away their lands and forced them to move into the areas he believed were most suited for the Indians.
Davidson, James W. Us: A Narrative History. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Print.