The people with typicalvision get the data dynamically reliant on vision in everyday living.
Unfortunately,low vision people has a visualimpairment that interferes with their ability to perform daily activities sothat they obtain theinformation by reading standardprint or enlarged print and through listening. In a survey conducted by World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010, the statistical result showed that there wereapproximately 1 , 285 million people Suffer visual impairment 39 million people Blind 246 million people Low vision A probable of 19 million of the low visual impaired were childrenaged under 15. Every year, it grows by up to 2 million worldwide.Because of low visualdisability, the abilities for performing daily tasks like reading, walking,driving, or recognizing objects, findingand interacting with surrounding world are limited or unfair.
Theyneed assistance from their family members and friends. If the assistivetechnologies can support low visually impaired people in at least one of dailytasks, it is going to make a very relevant social impact 2.For low visually impaired people, Large print type should be used,preferably 18 point, but at a minimum 16 point. Scalable fonts on the computermake this easy to do. Corrective lenses areglass or plastic worn on or in front of the eye that are used to improve the focus and correct the blur.
Theyare mainly used to treat myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia andastigmatism3. However, those corrective lenses are only useful for low visuallyimpaired people.Some of the technologieshave been developed for the solution of walking assistance in the followingaspects like obstacle avoidance, navigation and orientation, and accessingenvironment.
The most traditional mobility tools is the long cane (i.e., whitecane) which is used to detect obstacles in the path of thevisually impaired. Low vision is often defined as visual impairment that interferes with aperson’s ability to perform everyday activities. Most low vision is caused by eye diseases and health conditions suchas cataracts, glaucoma Some low vision is from birth defects or injuries. Sothat they are unable to perform basiceveryday tasks such as reading, writing, driving and sitting in front of thetelevision or a computer screen.Anumber of devices have been developed to support the visually impaired toaccess public places and locations. For example, audible indicators are used toalert when doors open and cross the pedestrian26.
Recently, several aidsystems have been developed to help low vision impaired people read text from naturalsceneries or product labels 29 – 35. Assistive technologyshould be developed to increase the accessibility for verbal information likebooks, newspapers, documents, bills, and menus. Magnificationmethod is useful only for low vision people and not for those who arecompletely blind.Digital AccessibleInformation SYstem (DAISY) aims to provide digital audio books for people withprint disabilities 38. At present, eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and MP3are recommended as DAISY standard to represent text content and audio content.An XML format can be easily converted into another format, such as Braille,enlargetextand audio format. A screen reader is an interface which bridges the computeroperation system and the user’s command 39 – 41.
They are a form of assistive technology that allowvisually impaired people to read the content displayed on the computer screenthrough a speech synthesizer or Braille display. Visuallyimpaired people to access the informationmainly through: (1) Enlarging, The text and Pictures. (2) hearing, the audio. A printed book oftenneeds to be scanned and recognized before translating it into Braille, orspeech44. LookTel 47 is a software developed to detect and recognizeobjects such as packaged goods, CD covers, bank notes and more. The above mentionedtechnologies are developed to assist the low vision impaired in navigation, reading,and object recognition. The degree of visual disabilities and the level ofpersonal abilities, thus for different individuals their needs are verydifferent. Low visually impaired people, especially blindpeople, are difficult to access visual information unless they are representednon-visually, such as with speech and Braille.
Almost all of theschools for the low visually impairedneed enlarged books for teaching and studying. However, in 80% of the blindschools, there is no department for producing tactile graphic and enlargedbooks for teaching and learning materials 48. Most of the work for producingenlarged teaching materials is done by teachers while some of the work is doneby volunteers. Technologies developed for automatically reading scene text playa key role in assisting people with visual impairment, especially low visionpeople, to find locations.
Up to now, severalportable or wearable camera-based devices have been proposed for assisting the lowvisually impaired to read text in scenery. It is necessary for us to develop atechnology for automatically reading text from scene images with high accuracy. Our aim is to (1) Develop atechnology that supports the translation of text into enlarged format and (2) Develop atechnology for automatically reading text from natural scenery. (3) Improve theaccessibility for textbooks to low visually impaired students.(4) And To support the lowvisually impaired to access text information in the surrounding environment.