The this issue must be dealt with. Altogether

problem is clear to see with the symptoms of poor circulation. Everyone is
different but similar at the same time. With some of the symptoms beings
weakness and cramp there can be some action towards this issue by the uses of
heat which in turn can offer improvements. 

Findings –

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toenail growth

Legs or
feet getting colder much more quickly than other parts of the body

cramping of the hip, thigh, or calf muscles after activity

Weak or no
pulse in the legs or feet

Skin of the
legs appears shiny or has a change of colour

Loss of
hair on the legs or slower hair growth on the legs

Poor wound
healing or an ulcer on the toe, foot, or leg

 Leg numbness or weakness

circulation within the feet indicates that an underlaying issue exists. There
are many different outcomes that could lead to poor feet circulation, everyone
is different when it comes to the symptoms. The following are commonly the
signs and indications:

Feet Circulation

circulation isn’t a condition itself, it is a result of many different issues.
Therefore, it is a must that this issue must be dealt with. Altogether there a
several different circumstances that can lead to poor circulation. These
include, obesity, diabetes, heart conditions and arterial issues. 

human body circulation system is accountable for sending bloods, oxygen and
nutrients throughout the body. When blood flows to specific parts of the body
there are times when it is reduced. This is where individuals may feel the
symptoms of poor circulation. Poor circulation is most common within the arms
and legs.



shows how the brands featured (Feetz, Adidas & New Balance) used different
methods of manufacture to revolutionise the design industry. Furthermore, the
creates products have comfort, durability and future thinking behind them.

 The Zante Generate upper is occupied from the
model Fresh Foam V2. The model captures a bootie construction with an
engineered mesh over the midfoot to permit for a soft yet supple support.

newly-founded material had supreme benefits and was a breakthrough. Firstly,
due to its flexibility, strength, weight and durability. Secondly, its
honey-comb midsole structure. The main reason the midsole was remarkably
flexible was due to the hundreds of small, open cells stipulating cushioning
and structure. Machine preparation is the reason the midsoles can endure a
footwear application but retain elasticity for luxury.

 Through a high-class partnership with 3D
Systems, new balance established a new laser sintering powder, DuraForm® TPU Elastomer. The
thermoplastic powder was mixed with a range of additives to enhance the
performance whilst in and after printing.
To make substantial improvements within the performance of printed parts of
the running shoe. The Zante Generate
midsole on the other hand used a selective
laser sintering (SLS) process. The process of this translates the new
powder material into dense cross section, layer & layer, using a

Balance is at the vanguard of the 3D printing society and has been exploiting
new innovative and stimulating trades towards athletes for numerous years.

New Balance

Materialise supported Adidas by offering a new lightweight
structure that would keep the shoe at a comfortable weight. The design and
manufacturing team at Materialise operated
with Materialise 3-matic to create
the structure, refining the midsoles flexibility without compromising the
rigidness and strength. Laser sintered TPU was used to create the midsoles.
Reason being it’s robust & fully flexible 3D printing substantial used in
consumer products, through Materialises specialised engineering process.
Additive manufacturing automation and control software Materialise Streamics offer an outline of the full manufacture process, guaranteeing traceability and
repeatability which is vital towards the engineering of end-use consumer

ultimate amalgamation of new material and developments is what offers the best
custom-made experience for participants. The manufacture breakthrough will take
the running shoe to a higher standard, contributing in extraordinary provision
and cushioning in every step to enable optimum performance.

flexibility & maximum breathability towards the
individual. Adidas creates a fully carbon
copy of the participant’s footprint, matching the entire contours and pressure points, which
assess the finest running experience. Interlinked with data sources and foot
scanning technology, this offers exceptional opportunities for instant in-store

goliaths Adidas has revealed the
future of recital footwear with Futurecraft
3D, an exceptional 3D-printed running shoe midsole that can be custom-made
to moderating the needs of the specifics foot. The ethos of the ‘Futurecraft
series’, is forward-thinking, as well as venturing down avenues which in turn
opens more sources for collaboration and craftsmanship to revolutionise
fundamentals of production. 


shows there is high amounts of potential for manufacturing change in the
footwear industry, which in turn can transform the environment making is more

developed their own 3D printer, by using a fused filament fabrication
technique, their own patented polymer. The ideology behind the brand was to
reconsider the manufacturing process, in turn to make sustainable. Utilizing
recycled and recyclable materials, no water and 60% reduction within their
carbon footprint. Together all of this makes Feetz a future thinking sustainable
brand, therefore there is zero material waste as you print what is needed.  

in other sector, process such as 3D printing can offer new manufacturing
possibilities. It offers potentials and opportunities to companies. For
instant: ‘Feetz’. An American
founder company owned and run by Lucy
Beard.  Feetz makes custom shoes,
easy to wear and have an attractive style. In addition to this, Feetz is
devoted to shielding the environment,

Sneaker Market & 3D

accumulating my information, it shows that the fashion industry is almost ready
for smart technologies and once it reaches it can set off a new trend for
fashion industry. 

process of 3D printing within the fashion industry is still at a conceptual
stage, therefore their individuals must remain optimistic that this
manufacturing process will be a major prospect in the future – both high-end
and mass market. But first tackling the material is the major hindrance. There
have been tests where a flexible polymer has been used as an option, but the
industry will need a range of new materials which in turn are comfortable to
wear.  The other obstacle is developing a
printer for fashion attires which can mechanically allow air to surpass through
just like conventional yarns. All together this can relate into how smart
technologies can improve future design.

major concern was the materials. The synthetic materials which are commercially
accessible for 3D printing, for instance polylactic acid, not easy or flexible
enough for garments. The reason is the printing process prints as a solid
meaning air is unable to pass through like regular fabrics. The downfall of
this is they are unable to absorb bodily moisture, they are neither breathable
or drapable. In addition to this, there is more work needed to be done with the
materials to comprehend how to design with efficient drapability which in turn
will interpret into wearable garments.

manufacturing industries from prosthetics to car parts are now widely using 3D
printing within their production process. But one industry that where 3D
printing has excessive potential is fashion. From mass-market production
clothing to running-off tweaked garments to purchase in shops or be delivered
to the home.  There have been some
samples on the catwalk 3 years ago where the garment was a full 3D printed
dress in New York.

Fashion & 3D Printing


clearly shows how the form of 3D printing has impacted the healthcare industry
offering some truly beneficial trades towards it. Firstly, with how operating times
and costs have been reduced, secondly with the 3D printing offering
replacements towards the human body. 

have been positive cases, where individuals have reported of a 95% dramatic lead time cut and a 70% cost reduction. A respectable
sample of this is US design & product development company, Worrell, they enhanced it medical
device expansion by exploiting the form of 3D printed injection moulds.
Conventionally, it would have taken 4-6
weeks to harvest the utensil in aluminium,
due to the PolyJet 3D Printing
Technology, Worrell vividly decreased its time to two-days for low volume
runs. The high rigidity and heat resistance of the Digital ABS material has
revolutionised the manufacture of 3D printing injection moulds. As they are now
able to endure the consistencies of an injection machine. Furthermost, this
allows industries such as, Worrell to swiftly and cost-effectively harvest
medical device model parts in the final production material.

medical device manufactures are impressed with the improved times by the uses
of 3D printing.  Operators can harvest a
range of medical assembly utensils that can be done immediate rather than
waiting up to serval days, or worse case, weeks. This is due to traditional
manufacture procedures. Stratasys 3D printing on the other hand, can harvest
manufacturing tools such as injection moulding inserts. The benefits are it
allows medical institutions to grasp an early manufacture phase for clinical
trials, which in turn can offer a cost-effective way to harvest exclusive
medical devices.

Pioneering Enhancements
Towards Health

have been some highly rated cases where patient’s diagnosis has been improved
due to 3D printing. The persistent request to progress efficiencies drives the
medical manufactures to produce products faster, with cost reduction, higher
customization and fewer demanding use of resources. Continuing with this,
hospitals can examine 3D printed prototypes in the premature stages for design
alterations before the final construction. Therefore, marketing of innovative
medical devices is decreasing, advantages of this are patients can profit from
the new novelties quicker than previous years.

over 25 years ago, additive printing or 3D printing can nowadays harvest parts
across an extensive range of businesses and applications. As the healthcare
industry revenues, greater and greater cuts of the gross domestic product of
countries, the fundamental obstacle will be cost due to the constant upsurge in
innovation to advance efficiencies. In the medical field, 3D printing promotes
faster labour, decreased stint in the theatre and overall increased operation

healthcare industry is a sector where new novelties and technologies have
unswerving impacts on improving processes, operation results and saving lives.
A key element to this is additive manufacturing technology.

Healthcare industry &
influence of 3D Printing


clear to see how 3D printing has grown and given good change towards the design
industry. It has reduced manufacture cost, increase employability in the US
& opened new doors towards manufacture methods which has caught interest
from different industries.


correspondingly valuable benefit of outsourcing that is perhaps less obvious is
the access it offers to skilled personnel with unfathomable information of
additive manufacturing. Outsourcing is not only useful as an approach for
accessing technology, but for accessing proficiency.


companies that specialize in ‘providing 3D printing services’, the calculation
differs. It makes sense to invest in the state-of-the-art technology when it is
the operating principal of your business. In other words, the service offers a
model which implicates less risk of investment for all parties.


said, outsourcing a provider still offers tremendous amount of valuable
service. One of the most advanced services is the pioneering technology that
might not be affordable otherwise. Second is the valuable rate that the
technology is improving. Individuals may invest excessive quantities of money
into what is today a high spec system, only for its to be exceeded over time by
powerful systems.


accessibility and aptitudes of in-house additive manufacturing expertise
continues to enlarge. 3D printer’s capability of constructing purposeful
prototypes and end-use parts are progressively being taken onboard by firms in
all kinds of industries, by individuals and sovereign designers for use in
their own homes or small businesses. This trend will certainly begin to expand,
due to the costs of technology decreasing.


is clear to see that 3D printing has opened the door to new opportunities. We
now have the possibility to construct parts for the body using this process.
Which in turn can assist many doctors and speed up time when serious injuries

amplified effectiveness of additive techniques is having a dramatic effective
upon the product design workflow. The manufacturing process is altering ‘how’
products are manufactured. In addition to changing ‘where’.  3D printing is contributing to a global
economic shift, which is seeing manufacturing recurring back to the United
states with an increase of 35.2% in 2014 but had a slight decrease in 2015.

printing is what was first deemed inaccessible to now happening around us with
in our day-to-day lives. To individuals that view this process as, ‘fringe or
niche’, will be very astonished that industries are beginning to adopt that
technology making it a regular thing. Its estimated that around the next decade
most of the airliners are likely to be utilising 3D printed parts. The
technology is being used within, medical industry, in automotive, industrial
manufacturing, prototyping, for end – use parts ultimately in industries.

printing, or additive engineering, is having a revolutionary bearing upon the
product design and manufacturing. The technology and process is not only transforming
how things are made, but how they are designed. Therefore, as technology
continues advancing, the accessibility of materials is growing, which in turn
is the cost of getting onboard with technology is decreasing.

Design & Manufacturing

were unable to perceive a way to monetize the future potential at the time. The
earliest designs had limitations. Thru the 1980s and 1990s the boundaries were
pushed and explored in educational institutions all over the globe. In the
2000s, there had been a breakthrough with the application of 3D printers to a
point where they were not just forming plastics but different materials such as
metals etc.

1984, Chuck Hull an employee of 3D Systems Corporations, self-sufficiently innovated
a process where objects could be condensed within layers. This innovated
process deemed successful from the beginning. The process of condensing layers
is the foundation of today’s 3D printing machines. Therefore, it must always be
considered that Hideo Kodama was the first person to develop such a process.
Chuck Hull on the other hand, developed his application independently, but he
was not the first to it.

printing became a reality in the early 1980s. There are 2 primary events highly
regarded to be the driving forces for the 3D print crusade. In Japan, an
employee belonging to the ‘Nagoya Municipal Research Institute’ made the
initial significant contributions to this technology. Hideo Kodama invented the
initial manufacturing technology and methodology for rendering plastics into 3
dimensions with a polymer that was exposed to ultraviolet rays.

printing is a method by which physical objects are created from 3-dimensional
models. It can be simply thought of as a copying machine which prints out
3-dimensional objects. Once the drawing is complete on the X, Y & Z planes
it can be created.

Origins of 3D Printing




& Kismet is a report that will be closely assessing how smart technologies
can improve future design. By viewing diverse design opportunities within the
fitness industry and how diverse design prospects can be found within the
trainer. This will be looking at how improvements can be made to the
circulation of the foot with a new trainer design.

21st century has really brought technology to the forefront. As each
year evolves, technology gets bigger, better and stronger making it more
accessible for humans around the globe. Things we thought were unable to happen
now are happening every day. Technology for example ‘3D printing’ was initially
designed and developed in the 1980s but was known as ‘rapid prototyping’ (RP).
subsequently the process has evolved and matured to a point where it can
improve future health and able to be produced to replicate the human




the report moves onto overseeing the proposal design options. These design
proposals will exploit the form of 3D printing by considering footwear that can
be use and can improve the circulation over extensive periods.

topic then moves onto observing current brands and how they have adapted uses
of material exploration and innovative manufacturing methods for them to create
products for consumers that improve the wellbeing of the foot by durability,
day to day wearing, sporting uses etc. In
addition to this overlooking current brands that have obtained the uses of
smart technologies to produce outcomes.

will commence with a coverage of the beginnings of ‘smart technologies’ and how
over the years it has improved to the point where it can be instantly done to
final models. Following on from this the report will be examining the current
demand for smart technologies in various industries and how they can speed up
the process of design and manufacturing.

report is an investigation assessing how applications of smart technologies and
processes can improve design. The focus for this will be examining the feet and
how improvements can be made towards circulation. through sole design by
exploiting the form of 3D printing.

Administrative summary