The the development of breast carcinogenesis was shown

The activity of the water extract of leaves
of A. muricata against the benign prostatic hyperplasia
(BPH-1) cell line and rats prostates was examined where the the
anti-proliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL was indicated. Bax gene
was up regulated, while Bcl-2 was suppressed. Normal histology of all the other
testes was observed. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups
(P < .05) and showed marked atrophy with increased cellularity and the acinii, empty of secretion. Prostate of test groups were abridged with epithelial lining showing condensation, pyknotic nucleus and marginalization of the nuclear material as the characteristic of apoptosis of the glandular epithelium. Furthermore, inadequate prostatic secretion with flattening of acinar epithelial lining was observed. Thus was concluded that Annona muricata has anti-proliferative effects on BPH-1 cells and deduces the prostate size, possibly through apoptosis (5). This promising antitumor effect was also reported in an in vivo study on 7,12-dimethylbenzene anthracene (DMBA)-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of mice. Oral administration of the A. muricata leaves probably have protective effects towards the development of breast carcinogenesis was shown by DMBA as it induced a protective effect against DNA damage. The leaves, even at a low dosage of 30 mg/kg suppressed the initiation and promotion stage of skin papillomagenesis in mice that was induced by DMBA and croton oil, respectively (27). In xenografts studies, the oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE show tumor growth-inhibition in human prostate tumor. This study also validates the synergy amongst the components of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) equated to its acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions and flavonoid-enriched (FEF) (22). The effect of Graviola extract against the prostate cancer cell lines has also been expounded in vitro. The experiments performed to show that Graviola initiates necrosis in PC-3 cells through inhibition of cellular metabolism and tumor mobility. Further evaluation depicted the downregulation of the expression of the hypoxia-related factors and glycolytic factors following treatment in PC cells with Graviola (41) Further studies by Yang C et, .al have shown that the Graviola leaf extract (GLE) pharmacokinetics and absorption kinetics resulting in inhibiting prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic colonies (43).