The activity of the water extract of leavesof A. muricata against the benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH-1) cell line and rats prostates was examined where the theanti-proliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL was indicated.
Bax genewas up regulated, while Bcl-2 was suppressed. Normal histology of all the othertestes was observed. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups(P < .05) and showed marked atrophy with increased cellularity and theacinii, empty of secretion. Prostate of test groups were abridged withepithelial lining showing condensation, pyknotic nucleus and marginalization ofthe nuclear material as the characteristic of apoptosis of the glandularepithelium.
Furthermore, inadequate prostatic secretion with flattening ofacinar epithelial lining was observed. Thus was concluded that Annona muricatahas anti-proliferative effects on BPH-1 cells and deduces the prostate size,possibly through apoptosis (5). This promisingantitumor effect was also reported in an in vivo study on 7,12-dimethylbenzene anthracene(DMBA)-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of mice. Oraladministration of the A. muricata leaves probably have protective effectstowards the development of breast carcinogenesis was shown by DMBA as itinduced a protective effect against DNA damage. The leaves, even at a lowdosage of 30 mg/kg suppressed the initiation and promotion stage of skinpapillomagenesis in mice that was induced by DMBA and croton oil, respectively(27). In xenografts studies, the oral administrationof 100mg/kg bw GLE show tumor growth-inhibition in human prostate tumor.
Thisstudy also validates the synergy amongst the components of Graviola leafextract (GLE) equated to its acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions andflavonoid-enriched (FEF) (22). The effect of Graviola extractagainst the prostate cancer cell lines has also been expounded in vitro. Theexperiments performed to show that Graviola initiates necrosis in PC-3 cellsthrough inhibition of cellular metabolism and tumor mobility. Furtherevaluation depicted the downregulation of the expression of the hypoxia-relatedfactors and glycolytic factors following treatment in PC cells with Graviola(41) Further studies by Yang C et, .al have shown that the Graviola leafextract (GLE) pharmacokinetics and absorption kinetics resulting in inhibitingprostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic colonies (43).