The various approachesto Organization Structure1. Classical Approach (Theory X):Maincontributors who developed established way to deal with hierarchical proceduresare Frederick Taylor Henri Fayol. Accentuation is on basic factors andcapacities or exercises to accomplish the targets. Weight on specialization andco-ordination, and hierarchy of leadership encourages co-ordination andcommunication.FrederickTaylor (1917) created logical administration hypothesis that is known asTaylorism toward the start of this century. Hishypothesis had four key columns: (a)Division of work (b)Scalar and useful procedures, for example, solidarity of summon, hierarchy ofleadership, assignment of expert, characterizing duty and responsibility. (c)Structure-line and staff.
(d)Span of control. Theclassical theory has important understanding into the idea of the organization.The hypothesis focuses on the structure of formal organization ignoring theinteraction of individual identity, casual or social gatherings andintra-organizational clashes. The classical theory (Theory X) sees associationas a structure which revolves around work and not around individuals.Hypothesis X sees man as a financial being, brings about carrot and stick wayto deal with inspiration. Theclassical approach had faith in dictator and autocratic managerial style. HenriFayol was additionally real donor of Classical Theory. Henri Fayol hasdivergent perspective than Taylor and he concentrated on the chief as opposedto the specialist and he stressed in regulatory highlights in the organization.
Fayol set up five authoritative capacities: (1) Planning; (2) sorting out; (3)instructing; (4) organizing; (5) controlling. These perspectives show thatFayol worried in ordering and controlling the organization towards superior.2. The Neo-classical Approach(Theory-Y):Thisapproach reflects human relations development and in addition behavioralscience approach.
It ponders intentions, supervision, gathering and intergrouppractices. It calls attention to that compelling co-appointment of exercises isunimaginable without the eager co-operation of individuals. Thistheory propagates individuals arranged organization structure which willincorporate casual and formal organization (popularity based/participativemanagement style). Two ideas of Theory-Y approach are individual and workgathering, i.e., inter personal relations and requirement for two routecommunication in the organization requested uncommon consideration in creatingadapted hierarchical structure Commitments: 1.Focused on part of easygoing associations as workplaces of social change (InformalLeadership) 2.Division of work Neo classical theory made motivational hypothesis and theoryof co-ordination and leadership.
Human issues are caused by nonattendance ofunderstanding of human lead in organizations.3. Behavioral science approach:Thisapproach utilizes methods and techniques of social sciences for example, brainscience, social science, social- psychology and human sciences for theinvestigation of human conduct. This approach advocates that dealing with anorganization includes completing things and through individuals and theinvestigation of management must be fixated on individuals and their relationalrelations.
It accentuates motivation, singular drives, group-dynamics,authority, bunch elements and so on.4. Modern organizational theory:Thisapproach defines organization as a system and furthermore considers the effectof condition on the viability of the organization. This theory has threeapproaches in particular. (a)Systems approach (b)Contingency approach and (c)Multivariate approach. (a)Systems approach:Thisapproach is based on the view depends on the view that an association is anopen framework made out of between related and interdependent components. Theassociation is an open-versatile framework interfacing with its own particularcondition.
The notable highlights are:(a)Environmental impacts on structure, (b)Adaptability (i.e., reacting to change), (c)Efficiency and viability, (d)Emphasis on human esteems, (e)Emphasis on between relationship and between reliance of sub-frameworks, (f)Integration and co-appointment of all sub frameworks into the aggregateframework, (g)Attention is paid towards the general adequacy of the framework as opposed tothe viability of the sub-frameworks. (b)Contingency approach:Thisis concerned with the investigation of particular associations with theiroutside surroundings and the reception of a reasonable structure to meet theprerequisites of the circumstance. The accentuation is on the need to adjustthe association to the request of evolving innovation, requirement fordevelopment creating from ecological and basic leadership vulnerability. Thisapproach proposes that “There is nobody most ideal approach to deal withany of the administrative issues and there is nobody best hierarchicalstructure to suit all circumstances.”Thesalient features are:(i)Situational factors assume an essential part in the plan of hierarchicalstructure and a reasonable administration style (ii)The determinants are (I) Size of the association: Bigger the size, higher theintricacy, (ii) Interaction require: free stream of correspondence required. (c)Multivariate approach:Thisapproach is an alteration of the possibility approach.
It sees the associationas comprising of four cooperating factors in particular: (I)Task, (ii)Structure, (iii)Technology and (iv)People-Interactive means an adjustment in any one variable consequently createsa change in different factors. The associating factors are: (I)Task-Basic business (ii)Structure-System of specialist, work process and correspondence (iii)Technology-Tools and types of gear (iv)People-(Actors)- People and their practices. Changecan viably start in any one variable as individuals are reoriented, structure,errand and innovation can be changed. Figure underneath outlines themulti-assortment approach to organizational theory. 2. Structure 1.
Task 3. Technology 4. People Iftechnology improves (i.e., computer numerically controlled machines, robotics,automation) there is a need to change relationship building abilities andhierarchical structure and undertaking will likewise change.
Inthe event that individuals are re-arranged (new work compel), structure,undertaking and innovation will likewise change.Conclusion:Alarge e-commerce company should adopt Six Box organizational model. Thesix-box display is included the accompanying parts (boxes): · Purposes: What ‘organizations’ would wesay we are in? · Structure: How would we isolate up thefunction? · Relationships: How would we overseestrife (facilitate) among individuals? With our advances? · Rewards: Is there a motivator for doingevery one of that necessities doing? · Leadership: Is somebody keeping thecontainers in adjust? · Helpful components: Have we satisfactoryplanning advances?It gives attention to issues:· Planning, · Incentives and rewards, · Personnel, · Internal competitions among organizationalunits, · Standards for remuneration, · Partnerships, · Hierarchies, · Delegation of authority, · Organizational control, · Accountability and · Performance assessment. Q2. As the Manager HR in the company currently in a downturn, you realize thatmanagers took bolder decisions when things were better. You are required tostudy the decision making pattern and suggest to the management an approachthat could facilitate effective decision making at tough times like these.Ans:Theessence of management is making decisions.
Directors are continually requiredto assess choices and settle on choices with respect to an extensive variety ofissues. Similarly as there are distinctive administrative styles, there arediverse basic leadership styles. Basic leadership includes vulnerability andhazard, and chiefs have fluctuating degrees of hazard avoidance. Basicleadership likewise includes subjective and quantitative investigations, andsome chiefs lean toward one type of examination over the other.
Basicleadership can be influenced by sane judgment, as well as by non-discerningcomponents, for example, the identity of the chief, peer weight, thehierarchical circumstance, and others. Furnishedwith data, chiefs can settle on better choices. Forefront chiefs, for instance,who are provided with coordinate movement cost data, can better overseeincomes, edges, and expenses. Associations can accomplish more consistencybetween upper administration and lower-level chiefs by giving more data allthrough the association.Techniques forEffective Decision Making1. Brainstorming:It is a combination of group problem-solving and discussions. It chips away atthe conviction that the more the quantity of thoughts, more prominent thelikelihood of touching base at an answer for the issue that is worthy to all.
It begins with the gathering producing thoughts which are then broke down, withactivity focuses in view of the discourses. Forexample, in the event that you have gotten another e-learning venture and arethinking about a system to actualize in the course, you can take after thisprocedure. Assemble a gathering of instructional creators in a meeting and letthem initially dissect the sources of info. From that point forward, you cangather thoughts from each of them and take a ultimate choice.2. Nominal group technique:In a nominal group technique, the group isolates itself into littler gatheringsand produces thoughts. Conceivable alternatives are noted down in composing andthe colleagues additionally talk about these to limit the conceivable decisionsthey might want to acknowledge. Colleagues at that point talk about and vote onthe most ideal decision.
The decision that gets the greatest votes isacknowledged as the collective choice. Proceedingwith the above illustration, this gathering of instructional planners can beadditionally separated into littler groups. Each individual from the groupgives their thought and toward the end, every part votes in favor of the bestone. Toward the end, the possibility that picks up the most elevated voteswould be settled.3. Multi-voting:It begins with a series of voting where an individual makes his choice for theshortlisted alternatives. Every individual can make one choice at any givenmoment. The choices with the most extreme number of votes are conveyed to thefollowing round.
This procedure is rehashed until the point when anunmistakable winning choice is acquired. Forexample, from the above talked about case, each group would propose theirmethodology before alternate groups. Also, alternate groups would vote in favorof the one they incline toward best. The system that gets the most extremenumber of votes is viewed as last.4. Delphi Method:In this method of decision-making, the facilitator permits colleagues toindependently conceptualize and present their thoughts “namelessly”.Other colleagues don’t have the foggiest idea about the proprietor of thethoughts.
The facilitator at that point gathers every one of the sources ofinfo and circles them among others for altering or enhancing them. Thisprocedure proceeds until the point when a ultimate choice is made. In the abovecase, you can have a facilitator who gathers systems and passes them on to theothers without uncovering to whom the procedure has a place. Afterward, thefacilitator gathers the extemporized methodologies and picks the best one.
5. Electronic Meeting:Here, the decision-making process happens essentially with the assistance ofinnovation. For example, we can have a Skype call with the customer. Make a fewsystems and examine them with the customer obviously in the Skype call; let thecustomer pick the procedure near his desires. Groupbasic leadership is a tedious procedure and before the group pioneer guaranteesthe cooperation of the full group, he/she should ensure he has enough time andassets for the basic leadership process and pick a strategy that is mostsuitable in a given circumstance, remembering the profile of colleagues.In order to maximize the potentialof a decision process, managers should take the following important steps:· Establishthe group objective: By articulating the measurements of thechoice, including its significance, a director can decrease vagueness and helpassemble individual’s center their investigation, talks, and consultations.
Areasonable proclamation of the inquiry to be settled can help bind together thegathering and make attachment that connects with individuals and enhances jointeffort. · Facilitatea workplace: After the choice objective is built up,the work space must take into consideration important, legitimate, and opencorrespondence among bunch individuals. The director can help build upstandards about how individuals will communicate with each other to cultivate usefultalk.
· Setclear desires and duties: By setting desires, supervisorshelp colleagues comprehend their choice undertakings and parameters (forinstance, due dates). Directors may relegate parts to help structure the choiceprocedure, build up a feeling of responsibility for parts of the gathering’swork, and illuminate obligations. · Provideassets: Managers must be careful that the gathering hassufficient assets to assess choices and settle on its choice. Fundamentalalterations may incorporate giving extra staff, giving additional time, orliberating individuals from other work assignments so they can completely takean interest in the basic leadership process. · Getoff the beaten path: After the chief has built up thesetting for the gathering to settle on its choice, the best thing to do isventure back and let the group perform.
The most valuable part now is that ofmentor, for example, if the gathering needs assistance overseeing relationalconnections or if extra clearness is required around an option.Conclusion:Settlingon awesome choices is a key initiative obligation. On the off chance that wepick the wrong basic leadership style, we could confront a fiasco. Pick thecorrect style and we’ll settle on choices speedier and all the more successfully.
Q3. As the Chief Mentor and Coach of the company you are required to mentor andcoach the High performers of the company as part of their success plan.a.Explain the difference between a manager and a leader. Explain with examplesthe different types of leaderships (minimum 2 styles).Ans:Aleader is one who impacts the conduct and work of others in collectiveendeavors towards accomplishment of indicated objectives in a givencircumstance. Then again, director can be a genuine supervisor just in theevent that he has got attributes of pioneer in him. Administrator at all levelsare relied upon to be the pioneers of work bunches with the goal thatsubordinates enthusiastically convey guidelines and acknowledge theirdirection.
Manager Vs. Leader Manager Leader A person becomes a manager by virtue of his position. A person becomes a leader on basis of his personal qualities. Manager has got formal rights in an organization because of his status.
Rights are not available to a leader. The subordinates are the followers of managers. The group of employees whom the leaders leads are his followers. A manager performs all five functions of management. Leader influences people to work willingly for group objectives. A manager is very essential to a concern. A leader is required to create cordial relation between person working in and for organization.
It is more stable. Leadership is temporary. All managers are leaders. All leaders are not managers. Manager is accountable for self and subordinates behaviour and performance. Leaders have no well defined accountability.
A manager’s concern is organizational goals. A leader’s concern is group goals and member’s satisfaction. People follow manager by virtue of job description.
People follow them on voluntary basis. A manager can continue in office till he performs his duties satisfactorily in congruence with organizational goals. A leader can maintain his position only through day to day wishes of followers. Manager has command over allocation and distribution of sanctions. A leader has command over different sanctions and related task records.
These sanctions are essentially of informal nature. 1.Charismatic LeadershipCharismaticleadership is basically the method of empowering specific practices in othersby method for articulate correspondence, influence and power of identity.Magnetic pioneers rouse devotees to complete things or enhance the way certainthings are finished. This is proficient by conjuring up energy in others toaccomplish an expressed objective or vision. Basically, the magnetic authoritystyle has its premise in a type of valor. This administration style ispractically of awesome cause.
Example:The Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi,is often regarded as one of India’s most charismatic leaders. 2. Autocratic LeadershipTheautocratic leadership style allows managers to settle on choices alone withoutthe contribution of others. Directors have add up to expert and force theirwill on representatives. Nobody challenges the choices of absolutist pioneers.Nations, for example, Cuba and North Korea work under the despotic authoritystyle. This administration style benefits workers who require closesupervision. Inventive representatives who flourish in aggregate capacitiesloathe this leadership style.
Example:This leadership style is usually employed by military commanders. North Koreandictator Kim Jong-un exemplifiesthis leadership style. b.Explain any one of the Traditional motivational models and give them examplesto discuss.Ans:Traditionalmotivational model: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ModelAccordingto Maslow, people are propelled by unsatisfied requirements. As each of theserequirements is altogether fulfilled, it drives and powers the following needto rise.
Maslow gathered the five needs into two classifications -Higher-arrange needs and Lower-arrange needs. The physiological and thesecurity needs constituted the lower-arrange needs. These lower-arrange needsare for the most part fulfilled remotely. The social, regard, andself-realization needs constituted the higher-arrange needs. Thesehigher-arrange needs are by and large fulfilled inside, i.e., inside a person.
Subsequently, we can infer that amid blast period, the representatives bringdown request needs are essentially met. Thishypothesis depends on the suspicion that there is a pecking order of five needsinside every person. The desperation of these necessities shifts.Thesefive needs are as follows-· Physiologicalneeds- The physiological needs of any individual mighttake first priority.
These are the fundamental needs of air, water, sustenance,attire and haven. At the end of the day, physiological necessities are therequirements for fundamental amenities of life.· Safetyneeds- These needs begin to overwhelm the person’s conductjust when his physical needs moderately fulfilled. Such needs are identifiedwith man’s want for a specific measure of wellbeing and security in his life,his trying for an anticipated and predictable condition where there is no badform or inclination.
Security needs incorporate physical, ecological andenthusiastic wellbeing and insurance. For example Job security, budgetarysecurity, insurance from creatures, family security, wellbeing security, and soforth.· Socialneeds- The third layer of human needs identifies with themental part of people. Social needs incorporate the requirement for adoration,warmth, mind, belongingness, and kinship.
· Esteemneeds- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteemneeds (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom) andexternal esteem needs (recognition, power, status, attention and admiration).· Self-actualizationneed- This include the desire to end up what you areequipped for getting to be/what you can possibly move toward becoming. Itincorporates the requirement for development and self-satisfaction. It likewiseincorporates want for increasing more learning, social-administration,innovativeness and being stylish. The self-realization needs are nevercompletely satiable. As an individual develops mentally, openings keepspringing up to keep developing.Conclusion:Maslow noticed thatthe request in which these necessities are satisfied does not generally takeafter this standard movement. For instance, he noticed that for a few people,the requirement for confidence is more vital than the requirement foraffection.
For others, the requirement for innovative satisfaction maysupersede even the most fundamental needs. Taking everything into account, theAbraham Maslow’s hypothesis is essential and has an association with capacityof HR. Physiological need is the essential needs that everybody need to performat that point will continue to alternate needs that is security needs thateverybody feel safe in accomplishing something and dependably be cautious andafterward social needs that urge individuals to speak with everybody and as faras anyone knows don’t need to feeling bashful and everybody ought to have highconfidence and the l