The Oak Ridges Moraine

The Oak Ridges Moraine is a geological and ecological landform in the mixed wood plains of southern-central Ontario, Canada. The regions cover a geographical region of 1980 square kilometers between Caledon, and Rice Lake. The Moraine is believed to have gotten its name from the rolling trees and rivers extending from Niagara Escarpment east to Rice Lake. On the other hand, Holland Marsh is a wetland and agricultural area in Ontario. The economic activity of the region is mostly farming based on the fertility of the soil ecologists have argued that different climatic conditions are a factor that is connected with the soil formation in the region. The many trees found in the two regions also prevent the issues of soil erosion which tend to affects soil development in other places. Several factors are involved in proper soil development.

Some of the dominant forest types observed in the Oak Ridge include Boreal forest, Oak-Pine Forest, and Savanna. There are various forest types observed on the Oak Ridge and the Joker hills. From the environmental reports, the forests in the region provide habitat for the many wild animals which also act as a source of tourism attraction. The region has benefited from such forest as ecologist from different parts of the world visit the Oak Ridges and Joker hills to conduct their experiment (Taylor, 2012). Some of the trees species found in the region are likely to become extinct. In that light, the ecologists are trying to strategies on some of the ways of preserving such species. Also, those forests are believed to prevent soil erosion as they tend to hold the soil together. Researchers have explained that the region would become one of the most cultivates lands. This is because of the fertility of the soil. The government is also conducting various experiments to establish the type of crops that would be suitable for that location. The forests found in Oak Ridge and Joker forest, are known to act as a catchment source for rain. Based on that, the region is believed to experience different climatic conditions over the years (Taylor, 2012). From the government reports, such climatic conditions would be suitable for farmers. Ecologist have establishes that the forest around the Oak Ridges and Joker hills tend to purify the air in the region. From scientific reports, it is believed that trees act as the best natural sources for purifying the environment. As such, it removes the excess carbon dioxide gas found in the atmosphere are released oxygen which is conducive for human inhalation.

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The primary purpose of the legislative is to protect the ecological and hydrological integrity of the Oak Ridges Moraine. In that light, the local government has enacted various laws that ensure the region is well protected from hazardous factors that could destroy the trees. First, the local government forbids the construction of industries around the region. It is believed that such industries would want to obtain their raw materials from the Oak Ridges which would be a way of destroying it. Also, the local government has encouraged the planation of more species of trees. The legislation was passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Ontario. This was to include in the Oak Ridge conservation plan regulations which defined land use and planning policies.

The provincial legislation has been at the forefront in encouraging sustainable development of the Oak Ridge Moraine. In the recent years, the provincial legislation has passed various laws that ensure the Oak Ridge is protected from deforestation (Taylor, 2012). Also, the catchment areas are preserved by constructing terraces in the region which prevents the issues of soil erosion. Also, they provincial legislation has permitted various ecologists to conduct their experiments in the region to establish some of the best ways of preserving the species that are likely to become extinct in the coming years. The legislative also included how agricultural farming would be conducted in the region. The idea was to ensure the rivers found in the Oak Ridges are protected from pollution.

It was established that the local government was reluctant in enacting policies that would ensure the Oak Ridges is preserved from unnecessary land use. In that light, some of the previous lands uses have enhanced a negative impact on the current land use in the region. First, most of the people who inhabited the region constructed terraces that ensured most of the soil ended up in rivers. As such, most of the rivers in the area are polluted due to the constant soil erosion that occurred in the region. Such action affected the livelihood of some of the people living around the Oak Ridges who were depending on fishing as their source of income. Some of the fishermen ventured into farming, which was another economic boost for the region. However, the government ensured that the rivers were not polluted by enhancing strict measures to people who constructed terraces that lead to the water bodies.

After the discovery of the Oak Ridge, it is believed that many people relocated from various parts of the country to live in the region based on the fertility of the soil. The increased number of people led to the cutting of trees to make room for the construction of settlement areas (Taylor, 2012). As such, most of the trees in the region were cut and yet they acted as a source of rain. Currently, the region is not experiencing as much rain as it used. Such issues have affected the agricultural productivity.

To protect the land use in the region, the Ontario Municipal Board divided the Moraine into four regions (Taylor, 2012). Most of the settlers around the region were placed in one segment so as to allow other areas to grow. It was believed that the huge numbers of settlers around the Moraine were increasing pollution to the natural scenarios.

The dominant soil type of Holland Marsh has affected the production of intensively grown row crops such as onions and carrots in several ways. From various agricultural research conducted, onions and carrots should be planted in areas that enhance the plentiful amount of rain water (Kooistra, 2009). Such plants require a lot of water for the synthesis process. In that light, the dominant soil type of the region does not absorb water for a long time. As such, even if there is rain, the soil is likely to remain dry within few minutes after the rainfall subsides. Based on that information, the dominant soil tends to affect the plantation of carrots and onions around the Holland Marsh. Also, the dominant soil does not have the capacity to hold together making it ineffective for the growth of such crops.

Also, as a result of soil erosion that is common in the region, most of the soil’s fertility is removed. This makes the soil to lack proper nutrients that are required for the growth pf onions and carrots (Busacca, 2010). However, the government has conducted an experiment to establish how the fertility of the soil could be improved. Farmers have been encouraged to construct trenches that would prevent the issues of soil erosion in the region. To ensure that the soil retains more water, the government has advised farmers to enhance irrigation as one of the methods of retaining water in that soil. This would prevent the soil from being dry making it appropriate for the growth of onions and carrots. Also, farmers have been encouraged to use different types of manures so as to replace the nutrients required for the growth of these types of crops.

;;;;;;;;;;;Agriculture is considered to be the dominant component of the global economy. The pressure to produce food has resulted in people establishing various ways of farming. In areas where there is a shortage of rainfall, such people have enrolled in irrigation schemes to ensure their crops have an adequate supply of water (Brownell, 2011). However, excessive use of such water bodies has increased pollution in the region. Some farmers tend to use water from seasonal rivers which do not have an adequate supply of water. As such, within a short time, the water from these rivers tends to reduce which eventually enhances pollution to other water bodies. Both people and animals require water for survival, and once the water bodies are polluted, it is likely to have a negative impact on their lives. In that light, extensive agriculture has been associated with the increase water pollution in most of the region.

;;;;;;;;;;;Many people tend to clear forest so as to create more space for agriculture. What is more, they cut down trees which are known to be the catchment source of rain. If more trees are cut down, the level of rainfall in the region is likely to decrease which would have a negative impact on the quality of water. Through planting of trees, it helps tp prevent the issues of soil erosion. However, due to extensive agriculture in most of the parts in the world, people tend to cut down trees which increase soil erosions. From various reports, soil erosion tends to remove nutrients found in the soil. As such, after soil erosions have happened in a region, the soil that remains lacks proper nutrient for plants to grow. Also, most of the soil tends to get into water bodies which pollute it. There are various ways in which soil erosion reduces the quality of water. First, it tends to carry most of the ground particles and materials that have been dumped and deposited them into the water bodies. As such, the materials tend to pollute the water making it harmful for human use. Also, frequent deposition of soil into such water bodies tends to raise the river banks which would have a negative impact on the aquatic animals. Soil erosion also reduces the sanity of the water reducing its quality. Some people use various chemicals as a way of preventing herbicides from destroying their crops. After they finish using such chemical, they tend to dump them into water bodies as a way of depositing them. The government has passed environmental laws that forbid people from polluting the water through dumping materials. Such actions are believed to reduce the quality of water. To prevent such containers from polluting the water, farmers are encouraged to burn them after use since they do not decompose easily in the event they buried.

;;;;;;;;;;;Improper fertilization management can also cause reduce the quality of water. Farmers who apply more fertilizer on their crops that recommend tend to pollute the environment in some ways. First, once it rains, the fertilizer usually dissolves into the soil which would end up with the water bodies affecting their quality. Also, crop production may contribute pesticides to ground water. In that light, they are likely to contaminate the water affecting its quality.

Holland Marsh is one of the fertile regions in Ontario, and it is recognized to be a producer of a significant percentage of vegetables grown in the region. Despite the importance of agriculture activities in the region, most of the farmers lack appropriate information on how to improve on their farming methods. From the reports, most of the people are still using the old farming methods which are not very effective. Lack of information regarding new farming methods has also led to an increase of pesticides which destroy most of their crops. However, the government with the help of other NGOs have tried to educate the people on how to prevent such pesticides from destroying their crops.

;;;;;;;;;;;Lack of proper farming technologies has also been associated with factors that affect sustainability development in Holland Marsh. Most of the farmers are using the manual means of farming which takes most of their time. The use of modern equipment in agriculture enhances high productivity (Holland, 2009). However, because of poverty in the region, most of the people in the region could not afford to purchase these new farming machines. As such, they mostly depend on laborers to work on the farms.

;;;;;;;;;;;The increased competition in the regions has also affected the sustainability development of Holland Marsh. Most of the people depended on agriculture as a source of livelihood. However, with the increased number of farming industries in the country, it has led to the reduction of the market for the produce. As many such people have ventured into other occupations which do not pay as much. Also, competition has led to the collapse of many businesses in the region as they could not match with other rivals in the market. Through such actions, many people have lost their jobs which will have a negative impact on the sustainability development of the region.

;;;;;;;;;;;The reduction rate of rainfall in the region has also affected their sustainability development. Most of the farmers are depending on irrigation as a method of supplying water to their crops. If it does not rain for a long time, the water from the rivers tends to reduce, and this would affect their crops. The reduction of rainfall in the region is attributed to the increased number of people cutting trees. The fluctuation rate of farm produce has also affected the sustainability development. There are many factors that are beloved to be the reason as to why such farm produce fluctuate. However, they are environmental factors which cannot be controlled. Based on that, many farmers are affected by such issues as they are not sure on the best time to sell their produce. Government policies are also attributed to be a reason that relates to prices fluctuating. Some policies do not favor particular farmers as they have to improvise of their agricultural methods.;

;;;;;;;;;;;Ecologists have established that one of the factors that enhance climate change in Holland Marsh is due to deforestation. In that past, the region was receiving an adequate amount of rainfall due to the availability of trees which tend to attract rainfall. However, because of urbanization, many trees have been cut down to pave more space for the construction of industries. This has led to affecting the climate condition as it changed the trend of how the region was experiencing rainfall. Also, the increased number of industries has led to increased pollution in the region as they release harmful gasses such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

;;;;;;;;;;;Parent material is one of the factors affecting soil development across the landscape from Joker Hills to Holland Marsh. This refers to organic materials which soil are formed. The soil will carry the characteristics of the parent material such a texture, color, and mineral composition. For example, if soil is formed in a place with large rocks, the soil will have a red color. In that light, it is common to find one of the regions in Holland Marsh is more fertile than the others. This will depend on the parent materials found in that region. Also, some soil formation may be affected based on the issue of soil erosion. Many regions in Holland are believed to be affected by soil erosion from the Joker Hills. The soil which is rushed down the hills may contain a lot of rocks which may not be appropriate for planting crops.;

;;;;;;;;;;;The climate is another important factor which can shape the soil formation of the region. The varying climatic conditions experienced around Joker Hills and Holland Marsh has been attributed to be another factor affecting soil development. The increased temperature in the region and precipitation has been affected the soil development. In that past, the two regions were considered to be more fertile since the two important components, temperature and precipitation were moderate. However, with the fluctuating degree of these two affected has led to the reduced sanity of the soil.

;;;;;;;;;;;Time is also attributed to be factors that affect soil development across the landscape from Joker Hills and Holland Marsh. Young soil may have the characteristics of the parent but as time passes; they may be contaminated with other organic materials which would change its texture and even color. Ecologists have explained that the soils in the two regions have been contaminated with organic materials which have reduced its fertility. The sources and the richness of the soil will depend on the living things (plants and animals) that live on or in the soil. Plants decompose which tend to add more nutrients to the soil. Based on the many tresses found in the Joker Hills and Holland Marsh, the soil is very rich in nutrients comparing to other regions. This is why most of the farmers produce are doing very well in that region. Also, the roots are important when it comes to soil formation.

References

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Brownell, E., Scott, S. G., ; Ontario. Dept. of Planning and Development. Immigration Branch. (2011). A study of Holland Marsh: Its reclamation and development. Toronto: Ontario. Dept. of Planning and Development. Immigration Branch.

Holland, S. (2009). The mushroom jungle: A history of postwar paperback publishing. Dilton Marsh, Westbury, Wiltshire: Zeon Books.

Kooistra, M. J. (2009). Soil development in recent marine sediments of the intertidal zone in the Oosterschelde – the Netherlands: A soil micromorphological approach. Amsterdam: Fys.-Geograf. en Bodemkundig Laboratorium.

Meer, J. J. (1982). The Fribourg Area, Switzerland: A study in quaternary geology and soil development.

Marchand, D. E. (1974). Chemical weathering, soil development, and geochemical fractionation in a part of the White Mountains, Mono and Inyo Counties, California. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

Oak Ridges Moraine Aggregate Committee., ; Oak Ridges Moraine Technical Working Committee (Ont.). (1994). Oak Ridges Moraine aggregate resources study: Background study no. 10 to the Oak Ridges Moraine Area planning study. Ontario: publisher not identified.

Oak Ridges Trail Association. (2003). Oak Ridges trail guidebook: A hiking trail along the Oak Ridges moraine. Aurora, Ont: Oak Ridges Trail Association.

Oak Ridges Moraine Technical Working Committee (Ont.), Geomatics International Inc., ; Paul Rennick ; Associates. (1993). Natural heritage system for the Oak Ridges Moraine area: GTA portion. Burlington, Ont.: Geomatics International Inc.

Taylor, E. M., United States., ; Geological Survey (U.S.). (2012). Instructions for the soil development index template: LOTUS 1-2-3. Denver, Colo: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey.