The effects of color on the moods of

The aim of study is to
investigate the effects of color on the moods of university students. The
experiment would be conduct at university ground. Ten fully saturated chromatic
colors will choose from the Munsell Color System: red, yellow, green, blue,
purple, yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and red-purple.
Apart from these ten hue groups, three achromatic colors (white, black and
middle gray) will also use. There will be 30 participants and each of them
shown color cards. All participants age varied from 18-35 years-old according
to WHO. All participants will be completing the given conditions. The
convenience sampling technique would be used to draw the sample. The research
data of this study will be analyzed through Independent Sample t-test in SPSS.


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This is our preliminary
experimental research project examined the effects of color on the moods. To
conduct this study, researcher surveyed young adults and used a statistical
analysis computer program todetermine the preliminary results. In recent years,
a great deal of research effort has been directed towards understanding the
effects of colors on the moods of human beings. We live in a world of color
(Huchendorf, 2007, p. 1). According to the various researches, the color that
surrounds us in our daily lives has a profound effect on our mood and on our
behavior (e.g., Babin, Hardesty, &Suter, 2003; Kwallek, Lewis, &
Robbins, 1988; Kwallek, Woodson, Lewis, & Sales, 1997; Rosenstein, 1985).
In clothing, interiors, landscape, and even natural light, a color can change
our mood from sad to happy, from confusion to intelligence, from fear to confidence.
It can actually be used to “level out” emotions or to create different moods
(Aves & Aves, 1994, p. 120).

Definition of Color:Color is the visual
perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red,
green, blue, and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution
of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral
sensitivities of the light receptors (Brodie, n.d.).
The seven colors of the spectrum are produced by light waves of varied lengths
that reflect off tangible animate and inanimate objects (Marberry, 1995,
p. 15). Light and color are simply a matter of vibrational frequency.
Chromatics, the science of color, is the study of this relationship (Graham, 1990).The
narrow band of energy that the human eye can detect extends from 380 nm at the
red end to 760 nm at the violet end. Sunlight produces all color wavelengths.
When human eyes interpret the wavelengths of light reflected from an object,
they see color (Day & Rich, 2009). Wright (2008) defines
color as, “color is light, which travels to us in waves from the sun, on the
same electro-magnetic spectrum as radio and television waves, micro waves,
x-rays etc.” The human eye is capable of seeing over 7 million colors. These
colors are gotten from the basic blocks of the primary, secondary, and tertiary

The primary colors:The
primary colors are the three basic hues red, blue, and yellow (Aves
& Aves, 1994).
These colors cannot be created by mixing others, and they are the basis of all
the other shades of colors which they generated. If the primary colors are
mixed in equal amounts, the resulting color is always black.

The secondary colors:These
are the colors that are achieved by mixing equal amounts of two primaries.
There are three secondary colors: green (a mixture of red and yellow), orange
(a mixture of blue and yellow), and violet (a mixture of red and blue).

The tertiary colors:Tertiary
colors are achieved by mixing equal amount of primary and secondary hues. There
are six tertiary colors which are lime as a mixture of green with yellow,
purple as a mixture of violet with red, saffron as a mixture of orange and red,
lavender as a mixture of violet with blue

Literature review:

Numerous researches have been
conducted on color effects on moods of human beings.

The objective of this
study was to investigate the colors effects on psychological processing. Color
is an important part of human perception. Many everyday objects have been
designed to convey a message through color. The way that colors effects
psychological processing has not been fully explained. In particular, past
studies on the effect of color on cognitive tasks have presented contradicting
results. These studies have often only assessed two of the three primary colors
at a time and still had contradicting results. Most studies focus on comparing
red to either blue or green. The results from this studies have been a mix with
some of the studies showing red to enhance cognitive task performance over blue
or green and the other studies showing the opposite effect (Mehta & Zhu,

The objective of this
study was to investigate the effect of color on expression of joy and
sadness.The paper describes an approach to learn how to use color to influence
the perception of emotions in virtual humans. First, a model of lighting and
filters inspired on the visual arts is integrated with a virtual human plat
form to manipulate color. Next, an evolutionary model, based on genetic
algorithms, is created to evolve mappings between emotions and lighting and
filter parameters. A first study is, then, conducted where subjects evolve
mappings for joy and sadness without being aware of the evolutionary model. In
a second study, the features which characterize the mappings are analyzed. The
independent t- test were used to compute result. Results show that virtual
human images of joy tend to be brighter, more saturated and have more colors
than images of sadness (Celso M. de Melo& Jonathan Gratch, 2009).

This research aims to
discover the psychological effects of colors on individuals, using the
students’ union complex in a university campus. This building was chosen due to
its richness in color variances. The research method is survey, and
questionnaires were drawn up and distributed to an even range of students,
comprising both international and local students; undergraduate and graduate.
Questionnaires have been collected and analyzed to find out the effects
different colors had on students’ moods in different spaces of the students’
union complex. This research would contribute to understand more about colors
and how they affect our feelings and therefore to make better decisions and
increase the use of spaces when choosing colors for different spaces to suit
the purpose for which they are designed (Sevinc Kurt and Kelechi Kingsley
Osueke, 2014).

Two experiments
explored the hypothesis that colors produce different cognitive learning
motivations: red produces an avoidance motivation and blue produces an approach
motivation. The avoidance motivation results in better performance on
detail-oriented tasks, and the approach motivation results in better
performance on creative tasks. To test this prediction, the first study used a
signal detection task manipulating word valence and color to independently
measure (a) the ability to discriminate previously seen words from new words
and (b) response bias. The second study used process dissociation, a method
that separates conscious recollection from unconscious memory, to measure the
effect of color and divided vs. full attention on a word-stem completion task.
In both studies the effect of color was found to be non-significant while the
secondary effects (word valence in the first study and attention in the second
study) were found to be significant. These studies call into question the idea
that color strongly influences cognitive task performance (Jennifer Olsen,

This paper examines how
an individual’s emotional state influences his or her preferences for colors
that have either congruent or incongruent emotional tones. Based on the emotion
literature, three alternative hypotheses are contrasted: emotion-judgment
congruence, emotion-target congruence, and emotion-target incongruence.
Evidence of emotion-target congruence is observed Experiments 1 and 2. This
effect, however, is moderated by emotion specificity and the type of colored
object. Attitudinal commitment is proposed as the key underlying mechanism.
When the negative emotional reaction reflects a committed (not committed)
attitude toward the situation, the emotion-target congruence (incongruence)
effect occurs Experiment 3. Similarly, emotion-target congruence takes place
(disappears) when the colored object signals (does not signal) people’s
attitudes and tastes Experiment 4. The paper concludes with a discussion on how
the proposed mechanism can explain part of the inconsistencies previously
observed in the emotion and aesthetics literature (Chan Jean Lee, Eduardo B.
Andrade, Stephen Palmer, 2009).


From all above
experimental researches we conclude that he concept of color psychology has
become a hot topic in marketing, art, design, and other areas. Much of the
evidence in this emerging area is anecdotal at best, but researchers and
experts have made a few important discoveries and observations about the psychology
of color and the effect it has on moods, feelings, and behaviors. Of course,
your feelings about color are often deeply personal and rooted in your own
experience or culture. For example, while the color white is used in many
Western countries to represent purity and innocence, it is seen as a symbol of
mourning in many Eastern countries.


To determine the effect of bright and
light colors on human mind

To determine
psychological effects of different colors

To discuss the significance and proper use of colors to have
positive effect on human mind

examine the color-emotion associations among university students, referencing
color stimuli from the standardized Munsell Color System.


Ø  There
are likely to be gender differences in perceiving colors.

Ø  Females
are more likely to be have higher emotional feelings than males

Ø  Bright
colors are likely to be related with pleasure in males and females


The site chosen for this research is the playground in
university campus with daylight and comfortable environment (same environment
for all participants).


Ten fully saturated
chromatic colors were chosen from the Munsell Color System: red, yellow, green,
blue, purple, yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and
red-purple. Apart from these ten hue groups, three achromatic colors (white,
black and middle gray) were also used.


The purpose to this
study to find out the effects of color on moods in university students. There
will be 30 participants and each of them shown color cards. All participants
age varied from 18-35 years-old.


For the present study
the sample comprised of 30 (15=males, 15=females) university students. The age
range of the participants is 18-35 years according to WHO.

Sampling strategy:

The sampling techniques
will be non–probability; Conveniencesampling technique would be used to draw
the sample.

Inclusion criteria:

Only willing participant will be

Only university students will be

Only young adults (18-35 years according
to World Health Organization) will be including.

The participants were restricted to
those that were not color blind

Exclusion criteria:

Participants with any disability will
not be including in the study.

Participants above or below young adults
will not be including.

Unwilling participant will not be
including in this study.  

Apparatus (measure):

Ten fully saturated chromatic colors
were chosen from the Munsell Color System: red, yellow, green, blue, purple,
yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and red-purple.

Blank paper


Clip board


Color cards will be
given to the participants and ask them about their moods after seeing the cards.
Provide them Blank papers on which they will have to give explanation about the
feelings they face. Also ask them to see the surroundings and give explanations
about any color which they like or don’t like and what they feel after seeing
the color. Order of presentation of the color samples was randomized across
participants. Participants were asked, “What emotional response do you
associate with this color? How does this color make you feel?” and “why
do you feel this way?’ These questions were adapted from Boyatzis and Varghese
(1994) and Hemphill (1996). Students were allowed to state only one emotional
response for each color. Their answers were recorded on an observation sheet.
Each experimental session lasted for about ten minutes.

Descriptive statistics
will be used to summarize data. Based on the results obtained from the
student’s responses, a total of twenty-two emotions were gathered Some of the
emotions had the same meaning (e.g., empty, void) and some were overlapped
(e.g., happy, happiness, joy), so they were grouped under the same emotion
category. There was also a category for those responses that indicated no
emotional response

Ethical Consideration:

Ethical considerations
were as following:

All the participants were informed that
their identification will be kept anonymous.

For the sample taken from the community
the individuals were asked to put the filled in questionnaires in an envelope
resting on the desk to reinforce anonymity. They were given the option to
withdraw from the study at any time.

Suggested Statistical Analysis:

Following analysis will
be conducted for research

The research data of this study will be analyzed
through Independent Sample t-test in SPSS.