The during pregnancy can cause outcomes, such as

The Zika virus, also known
as ZIKAV or ZIKV, is in the virus family Flaviviridae which includes, West Nile
and dengue fever. It is a disease that is transmitted mainly through mosquitos,
however sexual transmission between people is possible as well. Usually a
minor, self-limited illness when symptomatic causing a maculopapular rash,
fever, and/or conjunctivitis but it can also be asymptomatic. However, contracting
Zika during pregnancy can cause outcomes, such as loss of the fetus, microcephaly,
or other serious brain abnormalities. The virus “was first isolated in 1947
from a monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda, then in mosquitoes (Aedes africanus)
in the same forest in 1948, and in a human in Nigeria in 1952” (Factsheet about Zika virus disease,

            To epidemiologically describe this disease one of the
most popular models will be used, the epidemiological triangle. This model uses
the interactions between the host, environment, and the causative agent of the
disease. In this instance the environment factors include the climate, much of
the tropical and temperate places of the world that have more rainfall and
warmer climates, socioeconomic factors, “human travel and population growth and
crowding clearly have played an important role in Zika’s emergence” (Fauci
& Morens, 2017), and biological factors, swampy and watery areas that are
great for mosquitos to breed and to feed on the areas’ other animals. The hosts
for this disease are of every ethnicity, “all outbreaks reached all age groups”
(Barreto, Costa, & et. al, 2016), most cases where seen in women but; this
could be due to the fact that women are the ones who attend health services,
and it is seen in those who travel to the poverty stricken and over-crowded
parts of the world. The agent, as already discussed, is the flavivirus and its
vector the mosquito. Zika is spread by mosquitos biting animals or humans already
infected and then biting someone who is not. It can also spread between mother
and fetus, sexual transmission, and bodily fluids. The incubation period for
Zika virus is anywhere from three to fourteen days after getting bit by an
infected mosquito. There are two strains of the Zika virus, and Asian and an
African lineage, the Asian strain replicate at a much lower levels in tissues
many months after the initial infection. The African strain has more
pathogenicity, or causes more harm to the host, because it can replicate faster
and causes cell death. During the Flavivirus’ evolution, mutations were
acquired that altered its virulence depending on the strain.

            Statistics show that in certain
areas Zika has taken a foothold and continues to spread. In Maricopa county,
Arizona this is hardly the situation though, “in 2017 there were 3
travel-related cases” (Mosquito & Vector-Borne Diseases | Maricopa County,
AZ., 2018). In the entirety of Arizona there was “1637 total suspected Zika
virus cases” (AZDHS | Epidemiology & Disease Control – Mosquito Borne,
2018) but there was only the three confirmed cases that were in Maricopa
County. Throughout the United States there were quite a few more cases, “407
symptomatic Zika virus disease cases reported, 398 cases in travelers returning
from affected areas, 4 cases acquired through … mosquito-borne transmission in
Florida and Texas, and 5 cases acquired through sexual transmission” (Zika Virus, 2018).  Internationally Zika cases were countless,
from “1 January 2015 to 9 March 2017 there were 802,963 suspected and confirmed
autochthonous ZIKAV disease cases” (Fischer, Hills, & Petersen, 2017). The
Zika virus, originally thought to be a fairly nonthreatening pathogen, became a
global health crisis. This caused many organizations to set up strategic
responses to its spread. The global Zika virus outbreak teams and their
partners response to the Zika outbreak was to focus more on preventing and
managing medical problems caused by Zika.

            Anytime there is an epidemic or
outbreak of a disease, health care professionals take on a huge role to help
manage and prevent the spread of the disease. There is currently no vaccines
for the Zika virus so the key is prevention of the disease. There are three
levels of prevention used by health care professionals; primary, secondary, and
tertiary. Primary prevention is education about prevention and advocacy and
public policy development to control the disease. In the case of Zika the
primary prevention includes, educating the public about mosquito bite
prevention; such as insect repellant when outside, wearing clothing that covers
most of the body, putting screens on windows, and sleeping under a mosquito
net, mosquito population control; “emptying, cleaning, or covering containers
that can hold water to reduce areas where mosquitoes can breed including in and
around households” (Zika Virus Infection,
2018), as well as education on the prevention of non-vector transmission; such
as sexual, transfusion, maternally, or nosocomial. Women who live or travel
within areas likely to be infected with Zika should discuss with their doctors
the potential side effects or risks associated with the disease. Secondary
prevention includes screening people for a disease in areas that are more
likely to have the disease. With Zika health care professionals could possibly
have to travel to remote parts of the world to test villages and such for the
Zika virus or they would have to travel to over-crowded places to do the same
and to screen blood donations. Tertiary prevention involves teaching people who
already have the disease to manage it and to live the best life they can. As
for those with Zika they should be taught about protecting themselves from
further mosquito exposure while in the first week of infection. This prevents
other mosquitos from becoming infected and passing it along.