The endocrine system isone of the human bodies eleven organs systems, it includes all the glandswithin the body and the hormones produced by those glands. The nervous system stimulates the glandswhich makes them produce the hormones. Each part of the system and the different glands produces differenthormones to help the body maintain homeostasis. The glands included in the endocrine system is the hypothalamus, thepituitary, the pineal, ovaries in females and testes in males, the pancreas,the adrenal, the thyroid, the parathyroid, and thymus gland.
The hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pinealgland are all located within the brain. The hypothalamus connects the nervous system to the endocrine system byway of the pituitary gland. It producesseveral different hormones such as dopamine, somatostatin, growth releasinghormones, and others. The hormones thatare produced by the hypothalamus control the production of the six differenthormones that the pituitary gland produces.
Other responsibilities that fall on the shoulders of the hypothalamusare things like regulating heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature andsleep cycle, appetite and thirst balance, and more. The pituitary gland is made up of wo partsthe anterior and posterior. The anteriorpart of the gland is responsible for producing the hormones while the posteriorpart is stores and releases the hormones that are produced by thehypothalamus. Blood vessels surround thepituitary gland which support the process of transporting hormones and thesurround tissues. The final part of theendocrine system that is housed in the brain is the pineal gland. This gland produces an important hormonecalled melatonin.
Melatonin is thehormone that regulates sleep. Withoutsleep the bodies organs don’t work properly and begin to shut down. Stimulation from the retina receptors causethe pineal gland to produce and release the hormone to cause the body to feeltired and need sleep. Both the female ovaries and male testes are found withinthe pelvic area. Ovaries produces femalesex hormones called estrogen and progestogen. Estrogen is released during puberty and helps develop the secondaryfemale sex qualities such as breast and uterine development, it also helps withbone development during adolescent years.
Progestogen is predominately active during ovulation and pregnancy. The hormone helps develop the fetus while inuterine by maintaining normal conditions within the human body. Testes produce another hormone referred to astestosterone after puberty is hit with in the male species. Like estrogen, testosterone also aides in thegrowth of bones and muscles.
The hormonealso has an effect on hair follicles, most commonly on the chest, pubic area,and facial. The hormones that theovaries and the testes are vital to keep the body in working condition andproducing new babies to maintain the population. The thyroid and parathyroid are found in the neck. The thyroid produces three hormones,calcitonin, triiodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4). Calcitonin is a hormone that is released whencalcium levels are too high, T3 and T4 work together to maintain metabolicrate. Surrounding the thyroid is the parathyroid,it produces a hormone, PTH, which is vital to maintain calcium homeostasis, whenlow calcium is detected, PTH breaks down the osteoclast to and send the calciumto the kidneys which filters the calcium and send it back to the blood stream. The pancreas, the adrenal, and thymus gland are theremaining parts of the endocrine system. The pancreas is located in the abdomen outside of the stomach.
It plays a vital role in food digestion, itbreaks it down into fuel and energy for the body but the role is plays in theendocrine system is that it regulates blood sugar by producing insulin andglucagon. The adrenal gland is foundnear the kidneys and is another part of the body that is divided into twoparts, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The cortex produces three different hormones,glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. Glucocorticoids break down proteins, reduceinflammation and support immune response.
Mineralocorticoids regulate the concentration of mineral ions in thebody. Lastly, androgens are found inmales and help regulate growth hormones. The adrenal medulla produces the hormone epinephrine and norepinephrine,both hormones play a role in the body’s natural “flight or fight” response”rest and digest.” Both hormonesincrease blood pressure, heart rate and breathing rate. Finally, the thymus is found in the chest, itproduces a thymosin, a hormone that develop and trains t-lymphocytes, more commonlyknown as t-cells, during childhood. T-lymphocytes or t-cells, have three types, “helper” t-cells whichdetect bacteria and call other t-cells to help, “regulatory” t- cells they stopthe call for help, and “killer” t-cells detect and attack the bacteria. The thymus becomes inactive during pubertyand is eventually is replaced by adipose tissue. Like all the organ systems, the endocrine systemis an intricate cog with in the body and maintain homeostasis.
Hormones are a necessity for the body, they regulateother organ systems within the body. Other parts of the body that are vital to maintain homeostasisis the heart and blood. The heart is the has four chambers, the right andleft atrium as well as the right and left ventricle. Each chamber has its own job, the right atriumreceives deoxygenated blood, then enters the right ventricle which pumps it to thelung to get re-oxygenated. The left atriumreceives re-oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps blood to other parts of thebody.
Once the oxygenated blood leaves theatrium it enters the left ventricle, and from there is pumped out of the aorta throughoutthe body. Blood acts as a transport system,along with oxygen, blood transports all hormones, calcium, and all other cells importantfor the body throughout the body.