The a person and unfortunately, there is no

          The littlest things in one’s body can have the biggest impact on a person.  A strong example are the very genetics that make a person up, such as the chromosomes that make up a person’s DNA.  Having one extra or one less chromosome than the usual arrangement can change the entire genetic makeup of a person, such as physical features or internal issues with one’s body.  There are many different diagnoses for many different chromosomal abnormalities, and these four are just a few of them.          The first one is known as Down Syndrome, or Trisomy 21.  This is when there is one more extra chromosome for Chromosome Pair 21 in an individual’s DNA.  The symptoms that are associated with Down Syndrome include both external and internal features.  These external features include a wide body shape with very small facial features, such as the mouth and the ears.  As for the internal features, ‘Normal Growth and development is usually delayed and often individuals….don’t reach the average height or developmental milestones of unaffected individuals’ (Sietske N. Heyn, 2017).  There is no cure for this diagnosis since it involves the pure genetics of a person and unfortunately, there is no actual treatment for Down Syndrome.  Scientists are still trying to discover and understand all the basics for all the reasons and developments behind Down Syndrome.  However, there is a different kind of treatment to help with Down Syndrome, such as applying those affected into therapy and special education programs.  These kinds of treatments should allow easier educational and physical transition for individuals affected by Down Syndrome in their everyday lives as they grow older.            Another diagnosis formed due to abnormal chromosomes is Klinefelter’s Syndrome, which is when a male’s DNA consists of an extra X chromosome in Chromosome Pair 23, forming XXY instead of XY or XX.  There are many symptoms that show throughout different stages of a man’s life when he has it, such as having delays or difficulties with speech and frail muscles as a baby or toddler.  When it comes to teenagers or older boys, they are taller in height and the presence of puberty is very subtle.  They even have emotional distinctions such as being really timid and shy or having problems with learning or with expressing emotions.  But once they grow older, they show the most common symptom of Klinefelter’s which is known as infertility, the inability to reproduce.  Just like Down Syndrome, ‘while there is no cure for sex chromosome changes caused by Klinefelter’s syndrome, treatments can help minimize effects…’ (Cathy Cassata, 2014).  These treatments include Testosterone Replacement Therapy, where the males take testosterone as a patch on the skin or an injection due to the lack of production of testosterone within them.  Other treatments include Fertility Treatments and Breast Tissue Removal, along with the usual educational support and physical therapy.          Turner Syndrome affects the complete opposite crowd of Klinefelter’s Syndrome.  Turner Syndrome is when a female is born with only one X chromosome in Chromosome Pair 23 of their genetics.  These symptoms include many folds on the skin of the neck and a low hairline in the back of the head.  They are also more likely to develop heart and kidney problems, and infertility problems just like Klinefelter’s Syndrome.  The two most common characteristics for this diagnosis are ‘short stature and lack of ovarian development…’ (Turner Syndrome Society of the United States, 2017).  Just like all the previous syndromes, there is no cure for Turner Syndrome.  Also just like all the previous syndromes, therapy is the treatment that can reduce the symptoms.  There are different types of therapy such as Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Growth Hormone Therapy, which both help with the decline of growth in height and the decline in the production of estrogen.            Finally, there is Williams Syndrome, also known as Monosomy 7 or Williams-Beuren syndrome.  Williams Syndrome is caused by  ‘…a deletion in chromosome 7…the gene elastin, which gives elasticity to the blood, is one of the missing genes’ (Jaime Herndon, 2017).  This is a rare disorder that can cause many difficulties for both the mind and the body of a person that possesses Williams Syndrome.  The symptoms involve learning disabilities, having fears of specific things, being short in height, having speech delays, possessing ADHD, being sensitive to loud noise and risks of abnormalities regarding the kidney.  Because it deals with the genetic makeup of a person, there is no cure for it.  There are treatments that help with the symptoms of this syndrome such as the typical physical and speech therapy that’s recommended for almost every syndrome.  Overall, there is no strict protocol for treatments due to the diversity of the symptoms an affected individual can possess.