Techniques to Reduce theEnvironmental Impacts:Tocontrol the environment effect we have to monitor the emission from the plant,that is to capture and request the co??from the emission. As thezero emission depend on the capturing and request of co??one typesof the example of power plant is Elsam power station at Esbjerg, Denmark. Alsoone types of recommendation is to use a clean coal in power plant. By cleanmeans that is chemically washed and treated. The cost effective method to runcoal power plant efficiency is to operate power plant on diverse types of fuel.
For example a conversion to biomass or municipal was base power plant. From thesetypes of power plant the emission level is estimated is about 20% less carbon dioxideas compare to coal fired unit operating at a same capacity.Combined heat and power:Itis the method in which electricity and heat is generated. Is stead of torelease heat at higher temperature as compare to normal temperature, it is usedto heat abuilding.
This method is commonly used in some country like Denmarkand other Scandinavian countries and parts of Germany. CHPDH is the lowest costmethod of reduction in carbon emission.Options for fossil fuel powerplants:Theoptions other than coal-fired power plants contain hydroelectric power, nuclearpower, solar power, wind power, geothermal power, and tidal and new renewableenergy techniques. Some of the power generating technologies are proven onlarge industrial scale (i.e., hydroelectric, nuclear, wind, and tidal power)while others are in prototype stage.
Cost by power generation source:Thecost which is based on fossil fuel power plant of life about from 30 year to 50years is very attractive for the inventors because it has low investment cost.i.e., about 1000 to 1300 dollar per kilowatt electricity as compared to 2000 dollarper kilowatt from an onshore wind farm. So these cost when calculated is whenit include cost of electricity and which does not include the supplementary tothe pollutant generated due to fossil fuel burning burning (e.g., increasedrespiratory diseases).
Particulate matter control:Theseparticles are mostly classified as PM 2.5 and PM 10. PM 2.5 who’s size about2.5 micrometers or less than that. The class of particulate matter PM10 has asize of about 10 micrometer or less and it also includes PM2.5.
As compare tocourser particle the PM2.5 is more harmful to health.Aparticulate matter control device design to control the emission of particulatewith the exhaust stream of gas. It remove the collected PM and does not allowit to reinter the the stream.
The main particulate matter control devices are ElectrostaticPrecipitators (ESP), Fabric Filters (FF), Mechanical Collectors (MC) and VentureScrubbers (VS). Each type is designed to control a specific size of particulatematter. Asthe FF has a filter bags which control the PM by a fine filters in these bags ,The ESP remove the PM by creating electromagnetic field, the cyclone separatorremove the particulate matter by using centrifugal force, ElectrostaticPrecipitators, Fabric Filters, are more reliable to fulfill the requirement ofEPA of high efficiency and reliability.NOx control:Theconventional NOx is now a days new ones which is low NOxburner.
This low NOx burner use advance fluid dynamics and flamethermodynamics methods due to which flame temperature is decreased and thus lowNOx is produced. NOx can be controlled by using selectivecatalytic reduction or non-catalytic reduction system. In these process system catalecticis added to the system reduce NOx to N2 and H2O.Usually the most common catalyst used in the selective non catalytic reductionsystem is urea and ammonia. .
selective non catalytic reduction systemintroduce offer urea into temperaturerange of 760°C to 1100°C (1400°F to 2012 °F)., urea may react with availableoxygen to form NOx Within this range andin this way the NOx removed about from 15% to 35%.SO2 control:Theemissions of SO2 can be controlled by three methods. 1) Blending of fuel. 2) Switching fuel, with a fuel having lowersulfur contents.
3)Removing the SO2 from the flue gases.Thereare several of technologies which remove SO2. The most common technologies are,wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD), dry flue gas desulphurization. The dry usea spray dryer absorber (SDA) or circulating dry scrubber (CDS), or dry sorbentinjection (DSI).