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Q: what is the type of vaccine and mechnism of vaccine?

Ans:Vaccine:

               The word vaccine is derived from the the lattin word vaccan whicn means cow. So first it is used by the Adverd jenner to inject the cow pox first and then small pox into the boy named  James phips. In this way boy got immunity against small pox so it is termed as vaccine.

              Vaccine means weakend  germs of  that disease which produced immunity in the disease.

Types:

There are some types of  the vaccine which are given below:

Live weakend vaccine:

         Vaccine can be made by several ways. The mostly commonly the disease causing virus pass through the embryo of  the animals . For example when the embryo of chick virus is used infected the human it can replicate their and this type of the virus is better for the chick infection because it can replicate in the chick embryo but not in human. In sometime when the attenuated virus enters  into the human it can not replicate their. So this will not able to cause disease in human and acts as to produced the immunity in the body at that disease. This immunity protect the human against in that disease in future.

                    There is one danger that in sometimes the virus get potential and may infect the organisms. For example as in oral pollio virus it is live attenuated virus enters into the body through the oral cavity instead of  injected. This type may danger and cause paralytic pollio virus so it is inhibted in the USA to give OPV oral pollio virus and gave the IPV(inactivated pollio virus).

Helpful against Diseases:

Ø Small pox

Ø Rotavirus

Ø Chicken pox

Ø Shingles

Ø Measels and mumps

Inactivated virus:

                 This is another type of  the vaccine in which pathogens (disease causing substances) are killed by formalin or farmaldehyde or by using the heat. This killed pathogens  the ability to replicate is destroyed by these chemicals.  This type of  the vaccine is most suitable because it is not able to revert to replicate and infect the human.

              This vaccine type produce protection in short terms not the long term. However in sometime booster is required for the long term protection. This type of vaccine is used by the USA for the  childern to protect against the pollio disease.

Helpful against Diseases:

§  Flue

§  Rabies

§  Hepatiits A

§  polio

Toxoid:

        The immunity which produce in the body by the inactivated chimcal is called toxoid. Sometimes the disease is not directly created by the bacterea it is causes by the bacterial virus so it can be treated wtith the treated with the inactivated substancre such formalin to kill the toxin so it is named toxoid.

Helpful against Diseases:

·        Diphtheria

·        Tatnus

Conjugate and subunit vaccine:

                    In this type of  vaccine small piece of  germ is used. In this way they produced strong protection. This can be used in every one who needed. It may sometime needed for the booster shots for the protection.

Helpful against Diseases:

·        Whoopin cough

·        Hepatitis B

·        Human papiloma virus

Mechanism of  vaccine:

           The immunity is the ability of the body to tolerate against the different diseases. Sometime body take the foreign material as the pathogen and create the immunity. Immunity is organism specific.The mechanism is very simple weakend germs are used to introuced the immunity in the body. There are two types of immunity

·         active immunity

·         passive immunity.

Active immunity is usually created by its own body and it lasts in few years.

While the passive immunity induced by the artificial way to enters the microbe which are not able to infect.

The immune system is very complex because its main purpose to identify the foreign (antigen) and produced the protein (antibody) which kill the germs that enters in the body. When the immune system come in contact with the specific antigen they remember it and when futher whenever the attack of  the same disease this will helpful to overcome soon. There are different ways to stimulate the immune system in the body like killing pathogen produced immunity toxins produced by the bacterea and recombinent induced immunity in the body  but the best and most effective way is that to stimulate the immune system by live weakend germs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vutid:tmc160401990

Q:twhattistthettypetoftvaccinetandtmechnismtoftvaccine?

Ans:Vaccine: