Stanikzai and Henderson, (2002) they examined parent and

Stanikzai (2013) argued that the
reasons for which teachers contact parents largely deal with issues such as
child’s absence and problem with behaviors and performance. Inviting parents
via messages or phone calls were the contact ways selected by teachers. The
research identified the need for schools to proactively encourage parental
involvement through making the existing structures such as SMS more active and
equally accessible to both mothers and fathers.

According to Jeynes (2005a),
teachers and parents need to partner together in helping children reach their
potential. The teacher should keep in mind that the child is parents’ offspring
and consider that he/she is working alongside the parents to help the students
in their education (Jeynes, 2005b, 2007). Jeynes in this analytical essay summarized
the research on the influence of subtle aspect of parental involvement and concluded
that there are deliberate actions that teachers can take to enhance parental
involvement. They can educate parents to comprehend important subtle aspects of
parental involvement such as high expectations. They can also educate school
leaders, teachers, and staff that demonstrations of love and respect may be
more important than instructing different methods of helping children.  He declares that the spirit and the attitude
of parental involvement may actually be more important than the pedagogy
applied at home. Ultimately, teachers, students, and parents will all benefit
from this development.

The literature on parental
engagement is extensive. In recent years, studies revealed a significant and
positive relationship between parental involvements and the schooling of their
children’s academic achievement (Kimaro & Machumu, 2015; Zhou, 2014).  A majority of studies have focused on the
possible relationships between parental engagement and students’ achievements.
It’s concluded that parents’ involvement in educational processes has
outstanding influences on the final outcome (Jeynes 2005; Hill & Taylor
2004; Hill & Tyson 2009; Avvisati, Besbas, & Guyon 2010; Kimaro &
Machumu, 2015; Manilal, 2014).

In the research conducted by Mapp
and Henderson, (2002) they examined parent and community involvement and their
roles in impacting on student achievement. Through their review on parental
involvement, previous studies declared that all families can, and often do,
have a positive influence on their children’s learning. Warner (2002) described
parental involvement (PI) as the participation of caretakers in the child’s
educational life. Hence, parents contribute a great deal to their kids’
lifelong education and they must be aware of their crucial role.