SITU/SOC86/SSG participative and supportive leadership. XX. In accordance







A.        Malaysian Armed Forces Staff Manual (PPB
(MAL) 100), Volume 1, Service Writing.

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research paper will only limit on General Bernard A Schriever’s  leadership during the research and
development of the Minuteman and will cover the following:



principle to describe the leader.








XX.      Principle refer to Cambridge Dictionary is
a basic idea or rule that explains or
controls how
something happens or works and the meaning of leadership is the quality or
ability that
makes a person a leader, or the position of
being a leader.


XX.      Path-Goal Leadership.  In determining the best leadership principle
to describe Admiral Yi Sun-Shin, we had come across and tried several type of
theory. Just to name a few, Be-Know-How, Kouzes and Posner and Hudson
Leadership Model. After taking all the consideration and possibility, we found
out that the best approach to describe and to apply on our leader is through Path-Goal
Leadership that developed by Robert J. House in 1971. Path-Goal is a type of leadership theory that emphasizes
on establishing a clear path to goal achievement. This leadership styles that
are closely associated with four other leadership styles that are achievement-oriented
leadership, directive, participative and supportive leadership.


XX.      In accordance to glorify this Path-Goal
Leadership, it is a significant method that Admiral Yi Sun-Shin took up 320
year prior. Upon his appointment as naval commander of the
western part of Jeolla-do Province, Admiral Yi Sun-Shin anticipated that the
war against Japan is inevitable and begin thoroughly prepared his naval force
from the go and led by example. He set up the Korean Navy the path to glory
holistically merely from nothing until to the extent of monitoring the
supplying foods for his soldiers and ensuring a proper war equipment and
personal gears. This kind of gesture and attention to detail behaviour boost
his soldier’s morale and had clearly demonstrated his kindness and humanity.

XX.      In order to achieve the goal that he
already projected, he developed effective training strategies for the navy and
produced powerful weapons based on his assessment of the strengths and
weaknesses of enemies. Such comprehensive preparedness led him to victories in
all of his naval battles. He demonstrated his loyalty to the troops by treating
them with respect and fighting amongst them even when endangered. He also
beliefs in the value of each human life, the right of each person to be treated
with dignity and the right of each to go in pursuit of happiness.   






XX.      Yi Sun Shin was a leader with excellent creativity. He
development of various innovative weapons including the Geobukseon battleship,
outstanding naval tactics that become a part of world naval history, and
effective ways to manage an army. For example is The Geobukseon. The Geobukseon
as an assault battleship was designed by reforming the Panokseon battleship. It
is designed with an upper deck that was shielded with a layer wooden panels to
be suitable for againt Japan. Japanese force preferred hand-to-hand combat
after boarding enemy ships. The Geobukseon rammed into the enemy, brook the
formation of the fleet, and bombarded the enemy fleet with cannons. It fatally
damaged the Japanese fleet. Japanese force were very afraid of the Geobukseon
and calling it the bling ship.


XX.      Yi Sun Shin also develop a new weapons. He invented the
Jeongcheol Chongtong, innovative firearms that combined the strengths of both
Korean and Japanese firearms of the time. He is creativity was also utilized in
his management of the navy during the Imjin War.




XX.      Yi Sun Shin is brilliance as a naval commander in
his use of his creative naval tactic called ‘Hagikjin’ or crane-wing formation.
Because of this tactic, he won battleship at Hansondo. By this time, Japanese
forces were stuck in a quagmire due to the successive victories of the Korean
Navy, the appearance of Korean militias (Uibyeong in Korean), and the
intervention of the Chinese Army. Japan had no choice but to initiate tedious
peace talks with Ming China that lasted for 45 months. The peace talks did not
include Korea because of Korean opposition to peace negotiations with the
invading forces of Japan.




XX.      Yi Sun Shin had to procure all the means necessary
for the maintenance of the navy, including provisions and funds for the
production of weapons and military training. For this purpose, he engaged in
creative administration initiatives, including fishing, producing and selling
salt, managing land called Dunjeon, and issuing certificates that charged a fee
for the passage of coastal waters around the three provinces of Gyeongsang-do,
Jeolla-do and Chungcheong-do. Using his experience as a Dunjeongwan, the
officer in charge of managing Dunjeon, he gathered wandering people in Dunjeon
to supplement the military personnel, and effectively procured provisions for
the army.



XX.      Yin Sun Shin practiced justice without any
compromise of his integrity throughout his life. As a military officer, he
always strictly distinguished between public and private affairs, and had no
hesitation in speaking plainly to superiors or those in power about injustice.
Such uprightness caused him to go through several hardships during his lifetime,
but despite all of those challenges, he remained faithful to his principle of
justice. In practicing justice, he was stricter on himself than on others. The
following excerpt is from his report to the King, asking for his own punishment
after his navy lost a ship at the battle of Ungcheonpo in 1593. In fact, the
cause of the ship’s capsize was his subordinate generals not following his
orders, yet he took full responsibility as a commander. He in lived all his
life practicing justice by strictly adhering to his principles. He always led
by example before he came to judge others. This attitude served as the
foundation of his great achievements in saving the nation, highlighting his




XX.      Yi Sun Shin acted more bravely than anyone
else in battle. The record is well known that he defeated 133 enemy ships with
only 13 ships at the battle of Myeongnyang. When Korean Naval generals lost
their fighting spirit and held back in going on to battle, he rebuked them and
went forward to spearhead the battle. Encouraged by his brave initiative, the
Korean Navy desperately fought against the Japanese at the risk of their lives,
and triumphed despite being overwhelmingly outnumbered. Yi always led by
example to encourage subordinates to do their best in battle.

XX.      Before every battle, he prepared
thoroughly and devised effective strategies by using his remarkable insight in
battle conditions. He is glorious record of all victories and no defeats was
possible because he always took the lead in battle with distinguished bravery,
despite the danger that would await him.




XX.      Yi
Sun Shin devoted his entire life to protect the country that he belonged to and
loved. Regardless of his military rank, he did his best in his duty. After the
breakout of the Imjin War, he protected the territorial waters of Korea as the
head of the Korean Navy at the cost of his life. He faced many challenges in
serving his country as a military officer. Trapped in false accusations by his
superiors, he was demoted several times and served as a commoner in battle (the
punishment of Baegui Jonggun) in 1587 and in 1597. Despite his outstanding
accomplishments in naval battles, he even faced the threat of the death penalty
as a criminal. However, these ordeals never affected his patriotism. Until his
death on a ship during the battle of Noryang in November of 1598, he was firmly
determined to serve his beloved homeland.

XX.     His love for the country was
consistent with his love for the people. Even dangerous and precarious
situations, his first priority was always for the safety of the people. He
sincerely cared about people suffering hardships and tried to comfort them.







XX.     Obsession with Reward
and Recognition. During the Joseon Dynasty, generals, admirals, and
other government officials all worked to be rewarded and recognized by the
king. It was a typical culture of Joseon’s bureaucracy. In that process of
receiving rewards, conflicts among those people who achieved similar deeds
occurred frequently. Although Yi seems to be of a noble and a moral character
indifferent to rewards, he was not an exception in this struggle to be
rewarded. He also worked to be recognized by the king by often resorting to
methods unanticipated of him.


XX.     The rewards at the time were given according to the reports that
generals, admirals, and officials send to the government. Especially, for
military battles, the king gave graded rewards in proportion to the number of
enemy heads each commander decapitated. Consequently, although he initially
agreed to file a report with joint signatures with his counterpart, he instead
sent an exclusive one only for himself. It can be assumed from this incident
that Yi Sun Sin was not so different from any other military officials of the


XX.     In another incident, Admiral Yi Sun-Shin claimed that some of
his men infiltrated into Japanese camp in Busan and set the military
provisions, weapons, and some of enemy soldiers on fire. Nevertheless, another
report that revealed it was Lee Won Ik and Chung Hee Won who should be rewarded
by the feat instead. Yi later claimed the report might have been fraudulent
since he only relied on the words of his subordinates who reported to Yi.
Still, false report to the king was considered a heavy crime in the Joseon


XX.        Disloyalty
towards the King and the Nation. Yi’s battle history reveals an
interesting fact. Out of the 23 battles he fought, 15 took place in 1592, 1 in
1593, 3 in 1594, 3 in 1597, and the last one in 1598. Vast majority of them
took place in the first year of the war, and Yi Sun Sin actually did not fight
many battles during the following years. This was because Yi refused to obey
the king’s order to wage battles owing to unfavourable circumstances. Yi’s action
by refusal to respond to crown prince’s call compounded to the King’s outrages.
As Yi continuously refrained from fighting battles, King Seonjo sent his crown
prince, Gwanghaegun, to deliver his order face to face. Yet, Yi impertinently
refused to even meet him. This refusal was completely unacceptable according to
the laws then. It is a blatant evident that Yi was disrespectful and disloyal
to the king and the nation.











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(131250H Feb 10).

Clausewitz, Carl Von, On War 8th
ed, p78


Jan 18







SSG 3 (L)

SOC 71/10


Institut Kepimpinan dan Pengurusan TUDM (INSKEP)

Jalan Azyze