# Role machine-readable form & applying on a machine

Role of Algorithms: Algorithm is the most basic concept of
Computer Science, it may be taken as a series of steps in which an operation is
performed. e.g. assembling a machine from its parts, construction of building
from bricks, or playing music with some instrument.

A process in which we develop a
program, converting it into a machine-readable form & applying on a machine
is known as Programming. Programs & Algorithms both refers to Software,
unlike this the machine & its parts themselves are called Hardware.
With no algorithm for solving out a problem, the solution would be out of the
boundaries of machine.

The Date Backs of Computing: In the earliest era of computer, Abacus
was one of the basic computing devices. It is alone is just a data storage system,
but when it is combined with a human, it become a Complete Computational
Machine. After the earliest & before the Modern era, a few scientists
invented machines with technology of Gears, like Pascal, Leibniz
& Babbage. In these inventions, data was represented by Gear Positioning,
in which input was given by initial gear positioning. In Pascal’s and Leibniz’s
machines output was obtained by final gear positioning, & on the other
hand, Babbage designed the machine to give output by printing the results on
paper sheet, by which the possible errors could be eliminated manually.

Babbage’s Difference Engine: The machine designed by Babbage
was the                            of modern computer design. It shows the
difference between the square of two consecutive numbers & the second
difference between the differences of squares is equals to ‘2’. As shown in
chart.

x

x2

First Difference

Second Difference

0

0

1

1

12-22=
1

3-1=2

2

4

22-12=3

5-3=2

3

9

32-22=5

7-5=2

4

16

42-32=7

9-7=2

5

25

52-42=9

·
In
1981, IBM designed a first desktop computer, which software was
designed by a newly formed company on that time named Microsoft.

Abstraction: It is from a Latin word meaning
“detached/pulled away”. It allows us to neglect the details of a complex
device, like computer/microwave oven, it as a comprehensive unit.
Through the process of abstraction, an operator removes/hides all the
irrevalent data about an object to reduce complexity & increase the
efficiency of Machine.

Now has becomes one of the world’s most recognized technology companies.  The Google search engine is used by millions
of people to find their desired data through World Wide Web. In addition, it
also provides electronic mail service named Gmail, a video sharing service