Research not intend to identify overall laws but


In line with the research questions posed in chapter one, the foundation
of the current research is the interpretative paradigm. The core aim of the
current research is to detect the present status of how Citizenship education
within Saudi Arabia is perceived by the principals, teachers and students from
the schools that are participating

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It is understood that the individuals partaking devise, adapt and
interpret the world based on their own individual experience. Consequently, the
basis of this research is the notion that every participant in the research has
a contrasting viewpoint regarding citizenship education.


Given the relativistic reality of society, this research does not intend
to identify overall laws but rather seeks to give reasons regarding how the
world has been interpreted and perceived by those involved with the study.


Furthermore, the study, as indicated previously, follows the
interpretive paradigm, with  MacNaughton
et al. (2001, p.35) suggesting that “Interpretivism seeks to explain how people
make sense of their circumstances, that is, of the social world”. Consequently,
the research objective is to acquire an awareness of how to regard the
effectiveness of educating young people in Saudi Arabia so that they can function
as effective citizens in the KSA in a tatweer policy environment. The
interpretive approach is suitable as a means of having an awareness of the
situation by which individuals function and the process by which this happens
(Maxwell, 1996). The interpretive paradigm will consequently assist me as the
researcher to obtain an awareness of when those partaking believe to be the
suitable understanding, principles and skills that Saudi students need to
acquire in modern society. Radnor (2001, p.vii) states that “interpretive
educational research has explanatory powers and can inspire through offering
illuminating insights into human situations”. This method will help to reveal
the perceptions of the participants regarding the meaning of being a ‘good
citizen’ and the way in which citizenship education can be suitably provided.


From the details noted above and the exploratory element of this
research, using an interpretive approach appears to be appropriate as the
research attempts to contend with social realities. The students’ subjective
outlook, for instance, on what is suitable within the sphere of Citizenship
Education is one aspect of the research. It will consider what type of
programme is suitable in terms of establishing understanding, skills and
outlooks in accordance with the way in which the world has evolved, such as in
the increase in social media. This requires having an awareness of how learners
perceive themselves and how they interpret the objectives of Citizenship
Education. Furthermore, this research will consider the degree to which this
can equip young people with the skills that they need to function in society.
This requires understanding the outlook of teachers and the contrasts between
the principals, the teachers and the students in terms of the necessary
requirements to build a ‘good Saudi citizen’. Furthermore, the study intends to
discover  the obstacles which the
curriculum might encounter, such as the timetable, the teaching materials, or
the way in which the content is taught


The aforementioned concepts are socially established and there are as
many concepts as there are people (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). It is understood
that teachers and students have the ability to provide beneficial insights
regarding the content that they either teach or learn. Furthermore, it is
believed that the interpretive approach has the capacity to permit these
individuals to voice their outlook and viewpoint. The interpretive approach
requires me to be impartial but be part of the environment as I am connected to
the research process, so as to have an awareness of the perspective of the
participants and to make an interpretation on their response.


Consequently, I will engage with the individuals as the main tool of
compiling data to understand their contrasting outlooks in relation to the
Citizenship Education curriculum.

The interpretative approach modifies and utilises the researcher as a
core tool or means of compiling the qualitative data required. Cresswell has
argued that “in a natural setting” that the researcher has such an
important part in the process of collecting data as they emphasise the
perspective of the respondents, analyse the data inductively, and generate the
findings (1998: 14).


As such, we can understand the view of Denzin and Lincoln that a
qualitative study “is endlessly creative and interpretive” due to the
fact that “there is no single interpretive truth” (2000: 23). Correspondingly,
the researcher ought to attempt to find multi-truth via this and obtain all that
they can so as to find a means of conveying the perspective of the participants


Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000, p.22) suggest that “From an
interpretive perspective the hope of a universal theory which characterizes the
normative outlook gives way to multi-faceted images of human behaviour as
varied as the situations and contexts supporting them”. From reviewing
available literature, it appears that the subject matter of this particular
research has not been studied within the context of the KSA hitherto. Utilising
the interpretive paradigm ought to provide extensive insight, as the majority
of associated research within the context of Citizenship Education have
utilised the positivist paradigm which is the method most frequently used in Saudi.
Research undertaken using the interpretive paradigm ought to assist with
overcoming the limiting amount of research in this area.



and Privacy: 


The emphasis of this section is on the confidentiality of the data and
the anonymity of those involved. It is important for the researcher to approach
these aspects in a suitable manner. The aspect of informed consent is also an
important ethical consideration in research. Though connected, confidentiality
and anonymity are separate from each other. Within writing connected to ethical
issues, confidentiality is frequently perceived as relating to the notion of
privacy (Oliver, 2003; Gregory, 2003). Such a concept is dictated by the view
of society that each person is important and that everyone should be entitled
to live their lives privately. That said, it has been noted by Bulmer (2001)
that the information rich nature of modern society means that abiding by this
principal is not always a simple matter. Observing confidentiality means
providing the guarantee that the content of a discussion will not be disclosed
unless the approval from the relevant individual is received. The concepts of
confidentiality and anonymity are inevitably amongst the factors that need to
be clarified with individuals who are considering partaking in a piece of


In this respect, it can be said that confidentiality and privacy are
factors that overlap with the context of an individual’s participation in a
research study (Shank, 2006; Wet, 2010). The intention of confidentiality is to
ensure that the privacy of those involved in the research is protected
(Shank,2006). Wet (2010) has stated that, “It is too easily accepted that when
standard statements of informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, and
respect for research participants are included, research is deemed ethical”
(p.312). It is compulsory for a researcher to take sufficient steps to preserve
the confidentiality of the data and to ensure that the identities of those
involved are protected (Shank,2006). This might be achieved by incorporating
the steps of safely storing or disposing of any data that might reveal the
identity of the participant, ensure that any data is preserved securely, and
ensuring that only relevant people are involved in the compilation and analysis
of the data (Shank, 2006). The preservation of individual independence,
anonymity, privacy, and how these interact with the notion of informed consent
is a delicate and difficult matter. Whilst anonymity can protect confidentiality,
it is necessary to preserve confidentiality to ensure privacy (Howes et al,
1999). Consequently, anonymity and confidentiality involve both the acts of not
obtaining information that can be attributed to a specifically identifiable
person and not revealing that information that can be linked to a particular
person (Howes et al, 1999).


Caplan (1982) states that privacy is linked to human respect and that it
is the one ethical value that is linked to an individual’s sense of self. In
order to comply with human dignity, Kelman (1982) states that researchers ought
to avoid aspects that “diffuse harm”, as well as the “reduction of private
space and erosion of trust” (p. 46). That said, Howes et al. (1999) stated that
“the line between research misconduct and the protection of research
participants vis-à-vis reporting results is a fuzzy one” (p. 44). Academics
including Paul (2004) have suggested that confidentiality is a flexible concept
that is required in order to provide the necessary security but can be
developed to ensure that the research is corroborated as the requirement to
prove data representation is often needed to convey the validity of a study.