What is Russian Revolution ?
There were 2 Revolution in 1917, one happened in February 1917 and the other one in October 1917. Russian Revolution (1917) was happened in Feb 1917, many Russians fed up and Riots broke out in ST Petersburg because of the many Russians are killed or slaved during the WWI . The people are angry against the Tsar Nicholas II for getting Russian into the war. This ended 300 years of Romanov rule in Russia and a new government was set up, called the Provisional Government.(http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/41904621) The Provisional Government want to make Russia to be a more fairly society but because of Russia is still at war with Germany which cost them a lot to run the army, it makes Russia poor and lack of food. Citizen are not happy with this, it lead out a lot of arguments of what the government should do so it lead out a new Revolution in October.
Vladimir Lenin, the leader of a group of revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks knew that the Russian are not happy with how they are at the moment and he promised to give them what they want, it end up with a slogan’ peace, bread and land’
Communism is an idea created by Karl Marx, (http://www.history.com/topics/karl-marx)
In this essay the author will look at what is the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, then also give a interpretation for the Russian Revolution.
The causes of Russian Revolution
There are different short and long term cause for the Russian revolution, there are different causes from economic, political and social in the Revolution .
Start with economic, Russia was a poor country in 1900s, it had great resources in the country but were ‘locked in’ by the vast sized and the extreme weather in the country, it produced cheap raw materials for other countries but it was the policy of the Tsar from 1855 as a manufacturing power. During 1894-1900 the averaged economic growth rates was 9% and during 1900-1914 it dropped down to 5%. The poor in Russia work in farms and factories, 85% of people from the poor are living in small village and working in farm. The mid-class for example doctor, lawyer or teacher and the Rich for example the Tsar and the goverment in Russia only hold a few in the population. That’s made a huge gap with the Poor and Rich. During WWI Russia was not doing well in the War snd face food shortage and inflation, most food were gone to the army and the economic inflation rise 500%-700% from 1914-1917.
In Political, The Romanovs family ruled Russia for most than 3 centuries by Ivan, Peter the Great, Nicholas I and II , Alexander. Alexander want only Russian culture, he forbade the use of minority languages in schools and strict measures against Jews and Polish peasants, organised violence against Jews (Pogroms). Tsar Nicholas II wasn’t doing his job well, he took his father’s place in 1894, he was lack of experience in the Government work. He encouraged Russian expansion in Manchuria and this provoked war with Japan in 1904. The result was Russian defeated and it led to riots and strikes. In 1905, it caused (Bloody Sunday), the workers were going to complain to Nicholas for their troubles but Nicholas wasn’t in the palace. The army shot at the people demanding radical reform in St Petersburg. Citizen in Russia were not happy with him did not punish the guilty for massacres, the was one of the reason the Russian citizen dislike him , he was forced to create a constitution and establish a parliament, the Duma. But at that time , there were a rise of the intelligentsia, they wanted to anti reforms or reduce the power held by the Duma . Nicholas changed the voting laws to prevent the election of radicals and the secret police keep crush opposition. During that time Rasputin, Alexander and Nicholas were making the citizen disappointed by making Russian into war and create the economy problem. During 1906- 1907 there were nearly 4000 terrorist murders.The unsolved question of land and problems of WWI which exhausted millions of soldiers gave a pretext for Bolsheviks to blame Tsar and the entire system.
Rasputin was a minister in Russia, the Tsar gave the power to him and he lead the soldiers for war in Belarus, after a long trip lots of soldiers were killed by German army. Rasputin was killed by a group of disaffected nobles in December 1916. People listened eagerly to Bolshevik agitators who whispered them that Tsar Nicholas was to blame for everything. By the war problems and Bolshevik advertisement, Russian destroyed the authority of the Tsar.
People were not happy with the hunger, bad working condition, political oppression and an uncaring autocracy.
The Lithuanian people tried to being step on, and saw the Revolution as an opportunity to express their feeling.
The consequences of Russian Revolution
The government was taken over by the Bolshevik Party which led by Lenin (knowns as Communist Party) , Lenin influenced the workers to join them with a slogans”Bread, Peace and Land”. which gave Russian people confident on peaceful , have food to eat and land for the citizen to live or work, for example farmlands were distributed to the farmers and factories were given to the workers. The Bolsheviks want to bring a new system call communism to Russia. In economy, the economy was down because of the industrial production dropped, trade all but ceased and skilled worker leave the country. Russia banks were own by the country and a national council was assemble to run the economy . In March 1921 the New Economic Policy was instructed by the Bolshevik Party’s Tenth Congress. It gave more freedom in the market, small business can trade with citizen, peasants were allowed to pay their taxes and trade any remaining produce that was surplus their personal requirements.
In Political, Czarist rule was end, Nicholas II and his family were executed. After Nicholas II passed away, Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks become the leader of the group and having the power of it. Russian want to get out from the war like what Bolsheviks think, but for getting out from the war Russia will have to sign and agree with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that presented by the Central Power on the 3rd March 1918. This Treaty have some terms that Russia won’t like , for example Russian will have to giving up a huge part of their land.
Lenin wanted to turn the communist country to socialism country, he made two argument, the first was the provisional government that consisted by the remains of Duma which suspended by the Tsar before. And the other point was the soviets on the other hand were revolutionary councils. People in Russia believe Lenin is the leader that can lead them to freedom but they didn’t know Lenin wanted to cease the revolution and made it to be his own then captivate the people’s freedom.
During the days Lenin fight for the communism and peace, there were objectives behind him, Those people who objected him divided Russia into the White and people who support him which include the Bolsheviks were the Red. A Civil War between Bolshevik (Red) and anti-Bolshevik(White) forces, sweeps Russia from 1918-1920 . it resulted 15 million die in this. The Whites started the Civil War in 1919 and the picked Aleksandr Kolchak to be their leader. During the war , Russian’s Alliesamied to help the White because they hoping Russia back into the war , but the Allies couldn’t really took part during the war as the Civil War happened by the end of the WWI which they had too much to care their own country first. Also the White didn’t calculate right , they underestimate the power of the Red. Which was the White only got 250,000 of army to the Red had 5 million army led by Leon Trotsky. The Red won the Civil War but for Lenin he faced a massive number of death during the war which he promised won’t have war anymore when he led the Bolshevik .
The reason that Russian turned back into a Communism country was because Lenin was with the idea created by Karl Marx, a German political philosopher and economist. Marx’s theory was everything in a country should be public and nothing should be own by a single person. The Bolsheviks turned Russian to be a Communism country.
In 30th December 1922 , the First Congress of the Soviets of the USSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR, which saw Russia united with the other Soviet republics in the west to from a single federal state, the Soviet Union. Lenin was the leader of USSR, however he was sick and unwell, therefore it forced him into semiretirement.
After Lenin death in 1924, the Bolshevik then have to concern about who will be the new leader, there was many difficulties leading to Lenin’s death about who should took his place, Shalin and Trotsky