Purpose and background The purpose of this dissertation proposal is reflecton the results of the largest peacekeeping mission, MONUSCO by gaining deeperunderstanding of its practices for the last 18 years operating in thedemocratic Republic of Congo, while the violence of armed groups seemsimpossible to stop and democracy is declining.As for the interest of the subject, it is of twocategories: theoretical and practical. Theoretical because this reflection allows us tohave a precise idea about MONUC/MONUSCO, to know its structures andfunctioning, the means it has to carry out its policy, to consolidate andstabilize the peace in DRC;In practice because the study of MONUC and MONUSCOis also of interest as it contributes to the maintenance of peace,peacebuilding and stabilization in the DRC In order to better understand this researchpurpose, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the background ofrecent peacekeeping operations in DRC and the reasons behind its creation.
Itwas on November 30, 1999 with resolution 1279 that the United Nations decidedto deploy a mission in the DRC. Originally made of about 5,000 men andresponsible for observing the cease-fire, the United Nations OrganizationMission in Congo (MONUC) evolved to become the United Nations OrganizationMission 18 years later. United Nations for the stabilization of the DemocraticRepublic of the Congo (MONUSCO), the largest (22,000 men) and the mostexpensive (1.4 billion budget) mission of peacekeeping in the world. Key questions and chapters outline What are the results ofthe largest and most expensive peacekeeping mission on the planet, MONUSCO? Following this background,the main research question to be addressed in this study is, what are the causes of UNPeacekeeping mission failure in DRC conflict? I seek to address thefollowing sub questions in order to flesh out concomitantly the main researchquestion: Additionally, each subquestion will be applied to create the analytical structure of each Chapter in this study;proposed here as the following: Chapter 1: What is the role of UNITED NationsPeacekeeping Operations (PKO)?This chapter will providean overview historical background of peacekeeping operations and mandates andhow they evolve to date. Chapter 2: To what extent has MONUC/MONUSCO, in itsmission, been able to maintain and secure peace in the DRC? Through in depthanalysis and literature on different operations conducted by the UNpeacekeeping missions in DRC, this chapter will outline numerous realizationsmade by the aforementioned operations. Chapter 3: Howimportant is the transformation of the mandate of MONUC?By comparing the mandates of MONUC and MONUSCO,this chapter will analyze the significance of this transformation or whether itis a continuity. Chapter 4: Towhat extent has this transformation of MONUC to MONUSCO offer any chance of aserious hope and thus a definitive return to peace and security in Congo?Building off analysis literature and analysis in previouschapter, this chapter will examine MONUSCO robust mandate since 2010 vis a vis root causes of the conflict inDRC, and its impact on peacebuilding.
Chapter 5: Followingits shortcomings, how can UN peacekeeping in DRC structure and mandate beimproved to bring about lasting peace and security in Congo? This chapter will draw a conclusion by giving out recommendationsto secure a lasting peace in Congo based on current literatures. Notion of PeacekeepingOperations Since thenotion of Peacekeeping operations (PKO) is not expressly contemplated under thecharter, this absence raises the question of its legal basis and its generalcharacteristics. However, this formalabsence of regulations has also played in its advantage, as it has allowed itsdeployment to be carried out in many shapes and forms (Durall, 2013).
Definitionand characteristics of PKO Definition (?????//?) A PKO isfirst and foremost an operation undertaken by the UN, which results in aphysical presence of “peacekeepers” on the ground and the fact thatthe operation is that of the UN, although uses national quotas. Depending onthe nature of the operation, the presence of the UN may consist of a deploymentof military or civilian personnel, of police force or of observers, whichexplains the variable number of personnel (from a few tens of up to 40,000 forUNPROFOR in 1995). If initially the permanent members did not providecontingents, which is no longer the case, because they are usually the onlypossessors of adequate material means for the success of the PKOs. Similarly, acountry whose geographical position might give it special interest in anoperation can not provide a military unit. The responsibilities of theSecretary General are numerous, since he negotiates the conditions for settingup the operation: seeking quotas from the Member States, concluding anagreement with the host States, appointing the command, establishing theregulation of the operation, management of the operation and report to theboard on its execution.
The last element characterizing the PKO is theconservative aspect, symbolized by the search for peace and the neutrality ofthe operation at the political and legal levels. Traditionally, the mission ofthe PKO was the interposition of opposing forces, the monitoring of the respectof a cease-fire or the prevention of the resumption of hostilities to favor theemergence of conditions conducive to a future political settlement. To thisgeneration of KPOs destined to ensure the”silence of arms”, succeeded a second generation, whose mission hasexpanded considerably. The extension of their mission concerns in particularthe reconstruction of the State, the control of electoral operations, thesafeguarding of the human rights or the humanitarian assistance, the UN havingbecome the “good at everything for international security “.
LIMITATIONS OFPEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS SYSTEMAs the PKO is only a substitute for collectivesecurity, its principles have its limits on different levels. The first limitation lies in the vaguenessregarding the use of arms. The ethics of the “blue helmets” could besummarized, without being caricatural, by “the art of receiving blowswithout having the initiative to retaliate”. The ethics of peacekeepershas rightly been described as the “ethics of the policeman”. When theSecurity Council decided to break the rule of self-defense, by authorizing theuse of force in Congo after the secession of Katanga, its decision wasstigmatized. The PKO symbolizes an international community often criticized,the system is still diplomatic. PKO is constrained to aspects of the principleof non-intervention in the internal affairs of a state, which is difficult whena crisis presents both an international and an internal nature, intervention inthe Congo may again illustrate this assertion.The last isthe risk of a PKO to fail, causing some disillusionment and undermining thecredit of the United Nations.
If the Organization (UN) wants to establishcredible KPOs, it must at all costs avoid ambitions that are disproportionateto the means at its disposal. In this respect, the extreme diversity of thetasks that the United Nations must undertake in the context of the secondgeneration of KPOs has not failed to escalate these difficulties. Thus, itsaction in Cambodia was perceived at best only as a half-success. Nor can itpersist in intervening if the belligerents have no intention of ending theirconflict and dragging the United Nations to a resounding failure (Somalia) orimpeding a process of national reconciliation (Angola). Without sinking into acertain pessimism, let us not forget that the history of humans has been dottedwith crises, sometimes very serious. Majorrealizations & catastrophic failures Peacekeeping operations mission in DemocraticRepublic of Congo has had three main stages:1999-2007: bycontaining the centrifugal tendencies of the transitional government, MONUCmade it possible to organize and secure the constitutional referendum and theelections that gave birth to the Third Republic.
2007-2012:While the United Nations was supposed to support the establishment of newinstitutions and the reform of the security sector, the Kivu issueprogressively imposed itself and eventually dominated the UN agenda. DRC.Unable to prevail over Eastern armed groups, MONUSCO faces two crises in Goma(2008 and 2012), the last of which is a public humiliation for the UN. In 2012,an armed group, the M23, seizes the capital of eastern DRC allegedly defendedby the blue helmets and the Congolese army. While the Congolese soldiers fleeby committing abuses against civilians, the peacekeepers watch the rebels takethe city. 2012-2015: the UnitedNations is trying to take over the initiative and MONUSCO’s priority is to”neutralize armed groups”.
Its center of gravity is transferred fromKinshasa to Goma, its military resources are strengthened (creation of anintervention brigade and deployment of drones). The Congolese army and MONUSCOare pushing the M23 beyond the DRC borders at the end of 2013. But since then,no other armed group has been neutralized. The secondGoma crisis in 2012, triggered by the capture of the city by the M23,underlines the obvious military inefficiency of MONUSCO. It also leads to acomplete focus of the mission on eastern DRC. With the creation of theintervention brigade, the United Nations is trying to redo part of the solution.
However, the rupture between the Congolese government and the UN mission isbeing consumed and MONUSCO is again driven to passivity by a host governmentthat continues to emphasize its sovereignty. Ethical deliberation As this MAdissertation will use a desk study, in which secondary data is the primarysource of information, ethical violation according to University of Manchester’sstrict research codes is not at risk. The only issue is to find appropriate academicliterature in English, as the mainstream academic literature on Congo andMONUSCO is in French, but being bilingual, I will use both languages forlanguages to the best of my ability for literature, while relying mainly to theEnglish sources to avoid misrepresentation. Required Resources This essay’sresources can be accessed through UoM library and privately using a computer,as most of the resources can be accessed using online databases, journals ande-books and UN websites.
Proposed Timeline PlanThisresearch will take place in a period of close 4 months, starting from early Mayto late August. A work breakdown is outlined below: May: Reading,research and write chapter 1.June: Writechapter 2 after reading after reading and assessment.July: compare,analyze and write chapters 3 and 4.August: Completewith chapter 5 in the first 10 days of August then proceed with editing andprinting by the end of August.