Plato, in his book “The Republic”, deals with many subjects to try to define the world he lives in. One of the topics he discussed is justice.
In fact, he defines political justice through his book with a specific meaning. First, justice deals with what is just, what is fair and with the application of laws. In fact, the concept of justice is based on many different subjects, and perspectives that include the concepts of morality, ethics, rationality, law, religion, etc.However, the concept of justice is different in every culture. Plato defines it on the basis of the proper functioning of the different social classes that constitute the society. However, other philosophers define justice in a different manner. In fact, Aristotle claims that justice concerns what is fair and lawful, it deals with equitable distributions and the adjustment of what is not equitable.
Kant, in his opinion, states that justice is a virtue that leads us to respect others’ freedom, dignity, and independence by not interfering with their actions. Plato’s definition of justice is very interesting; he examines two main aspects to define justice. Those two main aspects are the division of parts of the state as well as in the soul. First, Plato’s tripartite theory of soul is a theory proposed by him, in which he asserts that the soul is composed of three parts, the logical, the high-spirited, and the appetitive.
Those three parts of the soul are representative of the three classes of a society. In fact, whether we talk about a society (a city) or an individual (soul), justice is, according to Plato, a state in which each different part fulfills a function without interfering in other functions (in functions of others). The function of the appetitive is to produce and seek pleasure; it is the part that is courageous, and vigorous. The function of the logical is to rule through the love of education, of learning. Finally, the function of the high-spirite..