Pakistan is an immensely populated andmulti-cultural country in South Asia that encompasses many ethnic groups suchas Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Seraikis, Muhajirs, Balochs, amongst severalothers. It is most commonly known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which isa highly advanced and modernized civilization that retains the fifth largestpopulation in the world. With being a predominantly Indo-Iranian speakingcountry, Pakistan closely neighbors Iran, Afghanistan, India, and China.
In1947, Pakistan became a sovereign state under the reign of Muhammad Ali Jinnah andattained independence from British rule. Periodically, Pakistan has enduredmany troublesome burdens to achieve political stability, social development,and economic security. The country’s capital is Islamabad, in the hillside ofthe Himalayas in the northern region, whereas Karachi is the most populous citythat is located on the South shore of the Arabian Sea. Pakistan was broughtinto existence due to the separation from British India, in reaction to the appealsof Islamic nationalists, spearheaded by the authority of the All India MuslimLeague.
From autonomy until 1971, Pakistan consisted of two provinces,particularly, West Pakistan in the Indus River Valley and East Pakistan in thedelta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. With regards to the dignifieddomestic political turmoil that emerged in 1971 from the civil war, Pakistanhas declared the independent sovereignty of Bangladesh. Pakistan embodies an affluent variety oflandscapes, beginning in the northwest, from the Pamirs and the Karakoram Rangethrough a spectrum of mountain territories, intricate valleys, and contentiousplateaus, down to the exceptionally even terrain of the fruitful Indus River,which drains into the Arabian Sea. It encompasses a sector of the historic SilkRoad and the Khyber Pass, the infamous corridor that has transported foreigninfluences into the diversely secluded subcontinent. Alongside the Indus Riverbasin, the artery of Pakistan, the ancient scenery of Mohenjo-Daro is one ofthe postmarks of the significance of civilization. Pakistan is bordered by Iranon the west, Afghanistan to the northwest and north, China to the northeast,and India to the east and southeast, and the Arabian Sea coast bordering thesouthern region. This year alone, the population ofPakistan is approximated to exceed 194 million inhabitants. The country’s autonomoussocial changes have been the driving force for expeditious urbanization and thedevelopment of populous cities that corresponds with the global movement mostcommonly referred to as social globalization.
Pakistan is a multi-ethniccivilization and is home to one of the largest refugee populations worldwide. Thenational, linguistic affiliation of Pakistan is Urdu, however many public representatives,professionals, and natives can speak English, whereas English is known to bePakistan’s informal official language. Urdu was established by piecing togetherthe languages of early historic aliens and settlers, including, Arabic,Persian, and Turkish.
While Urdu and English are predominantly spoken throughthe country, several other languages are practiced in different valleys and regions,which consists of Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, and Hindko dialects, amongst manyothers. Pakistan’s multi-cultural society constitutes many distinct races andethnic backgrounds; however, the lump sum of the Pakistani people belongs tothe Indo-Aryan ethnic group. The Pakistan census illustrates the country’smajor ethnic identities, which comprises of the Punjabis, Pukhtuns, and Sindhis.The remaining cultural groups are subdivided into smaller categories that consistof the Muhajirs, Balochis, Brahui, Kashmiri, amongst many others residing inthe northern areas. Islam is the country’s primary religion and is practiced bythe vast majority of Pakistani people, whereas Muslims are separated into SunniIslam or Shias.
Freedom of religious practice is an unalienable right safeguardedby the Constitution of Pakistan, which established the fundamental protectionthat all Pakistani natives, regardless of religion have equitable liberties. However,Pakistan is also home to a small percentage of non-Muslim religions, whopractice Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, alongside a few others. The political structure of Pakistan takesprecedent within the framework that the Constitution established.
Pakistan is afederal parliamentary republic; whereby provincial governments favor anexceptionally high standard of autonomy and residuary powers. Executiveauthority is bestowed in the national cabinet, which is spearheaded by theprime minister, who works systematically alongside the bicameral parliament andjudicial assembly. Similar to the American democracy within the United States,regulations set forth by the Constitution inhibit a sharing of governmentalpowers within a careful check and balance system, which make up the executive,judiciary, and legislature. The head of state or President of Pakistan isMamnoon Hussain, who was elected to serve a five-year presidential term. Thepresidency was an important component until the passage of the eighteenthamendment in 2010, which deprived the head of state of its absolute power.Since then, Pakistan has been changed from a semi-presidential system toexclusively a parliamentary government. The executive branch is composed of thecabinet and is controlled by the prime minister, which is entirely independentof the legislature. The Senate is the upper house, while the National Assemblyis the lower house.
The judiciary forms with the balance of the Superior Courtas a culmination court, parallel to the higher courts, and other secondarycourts. The sole purpose of the judicial system is to adjudicate the federallaws, regulations, and the Constitution. Pakistan is a multi-candidatepolitical democracy where numerous political parties occupy seats in thefederal and provincial assemblies.
As an outcome of the collapse of Dhaka in1971, a duel-party system was instilled amongst the Peoples Party and theMuslim League. There has also been a significant escalation in popularity of middleground parties, namely the Pakistan Muslim League-Q and the PakistanTehreek-e-Insaf. Pakistan’s creation of military forces has contributed to aprominent purpose in the country’s political climate.
Between the 1950’s and early 2000’s, manycoups were orchestrated to conquer democratic regimes. However, as a directresult of President Musharraf’s resignation in 2008, a distinctive line hasbeen established separating politics and military personnel, whereas Pakistanis taking strides to attain a liberal democracy.