Occupational health focuses on the physical and mental wellbeing of employees in theworkplace. The aim of occupational health is to prevent work-related illness andinjury by encouraging safe working practices, ergonomics (studying how you workand how you could work better) monitoring the health of the workforce supporting themanagement of sickness absence. An occupational health service might also workwith your employer to implement policies and ensure health and safety compliance,conduct pre-employment health assessments, support health promotion and educationprograms, provide advice and counselling to employees around non-health-relatedproblems, provide your employer with advice and guidance around makingreasonable adjustments to your working conditions. Occupational health provisionwill depend on the size of your organization. It can be provided by a nurse withoccupational health training and a part-time doctor, or through a range of specialists,including physiotherapists, hygienists, psychologists, ergonomic expert’soccupational therapist’s specialist occupational health nurses and doctors.Occupational health is usually provided at an employee’s place of work, but if youremployer does not have a dedicated service, you may need to travel to attendappointments with external providers. Many small to medium size enterprises (SMEs)do not have the size of workforce, or sufficient money, to sustain a dedicatedoccupational health service. For these reason, many SMEs use external occupationalhealth providers as and when they need it to support their staff and carry out medicalsand other occupational health assessments. If you think you need occupational healthservices, you should always speak to your employer in the first instance to understandwhat services are available and how you can access them. It is a known fact thatcertain sectors and occupations are more dangerous than others. Protecting workers inhazardous conditions – in what is often known as the “3D”, dirty, difficult anddangerous, jobs – is therefore a primary focus of the Safe Work program me. Priorityis given to workers in the most hazardous sectors and occupations, such asagriculture, construction, mining, or ship-breaking, or where working relationships orconditions create particular risks, such as exposure to hazardous agents, such aschemical substances or radiation, or in the informal economy. The occupationalHealth legislations in Sudan Interlink with many other relate law and acts like worklaws and social security laws It evolved and changed over the last 4 decades (1).Linda Omer Ali 3Laws & Acts related to occupational Health in SudanLaw – Acts Issued ModifiedPublic Health Law 5791 ? 8002Environmental law 5791 ? 2009Social Security law 5772 ?, 8002 ? 5792 ?Labor Law 5779 ?Work disability Compensation Law 5725 ?Pesticides law 5792 ? 1994Radiation law 5795 ? 1996Environmental Protection law 8005 ?Occupational Health Act 5792 ? 1980Periodic medical examination Act 5721 ?High Technical Committee Act 5799 ?Establishment of work places Act 5799 ?Medical Commission Act 5791 ?The most recent updated & effective law It cancelled all the previous laws like Workforce law 1974, Industrial relations 1976, Industrial Safety 1976, work relations law1984. It kept all previous acts. It specifies role and relations of employee, employersand the government in the work. The law covered general and specific occupationalHealth Issues which is Working environment, Safety measures, Periodical medicalLinda Omer Ali 4examination, raising worker’s awareness on hazards, Provision of Health services inworking places, working hours, Work of women and children, and Main OccupationalDiseases but there is many limitations like Linked with many other laws, it is notenforced and Lack tools and mechanism for implementation, The ministry of healthobjective is a healthy, safe and satisfactory work environment and a healthy, activeand productive worker, free from both occupational and non-occupational diseasesand ca and motivated to carry out his or her daily job and is able to experience jobsatisfaction and develop both as a worker and as an individual. occupational safetyand health can be defined as a multidisciplinary activity aiming to protection andpromotion of the health of workers by eliminating occupational factors hazardous tohealth and safety at work and enhancement of physical, mental and social well-beingof workers and support for the development and maintenance of their workingcapacity development and promotion of sustainable work environments and workorganizations. The Implementation of occupational health interventions is the role ofnational governments establish workplace rules, provide a system of informationdissemination and enforcement of regulations but A large obstacle is enough resources(to educate health professionals in occupational health, attract adequately trainedpersonnel and to establish and monitor laboratories to support regulatory efforts).Limited number of employers who know about industrial hygiene, safety and healthpractices, and available controls. Cost is often a factor that influences workplaceadoption of effective interventions to occupational hazards. Training of supervisorsand workers, may be difficult (educational proficiency, language barriers, and theapplicability of training materials to local contexts), Access to health care. In manyareas, worksite services may be the only health care services available to workers andtheir families. Workers (with or without families) often live and work in the sameplace where the workplace hazards, are part of their non – work environment. heavyworkloads and multiple tasks for each worker Children and family members should bekept away from all potential hazards, but it is difficult because many childrenthemselves work. Capacity building of professional expertise is critical to improvingworking conditions. Where capacity exists, the expertise tends to be medical, ratherthan related to industrial hygiene, engineering, or ergonomics. ministries of healthand labor have control over working conditions, but suffer from few experts andinadequate coordination. There is a series of steps taken by legislative body to providea frame work for managing health and safety risks in the work place and sets out legalLinda Omer Ali 5requirements affecting performance of work that must be followed. The trainingrequired must include procedures to be taken in the event of an emergency, thelocation of first aid facilities, identification of restricted areas, precautions to be takenfor the protection of the worker from physical chemical or biological hazards, timespent by a worker in the training is credited to the worker as time at work. a statementof the employer’s policy with respect to the protection and maintenance of the healthand safety of the workers, identification of existing and potential risks to the health orsafety of workers at the place of employment and the measures, including proceduresto respond to an emergency, a statement of the responsibilities of the employer, thesupervisors and the workers ,a statement of the employer’s policy with respect to theprotection and maintenance of the health and safety of the workers ,identification ofexisting and potential risks to the health or safety of workers at the place ofemployment and the measures, including procedures to respond to an emergency , astatement of the responsibilities of the employer, the supervisors and the workers, Anemployer shall ensure that all equipment is maintained at intervals that are sufficientto ensure the safe functioning of the equipment(2) . In practical terms, the preventiverole of the inspection services implies an increasing emphasis on proactive activities,such as carrying out planned inspection visits for such purposes as education,assessing plans for new buildings, plant, equipment and processes, providinginformation and advice in pursuit of a safe and healthy working environment for allworkers, the develop an effective national OSH system is a collaborative effort of thegovernment and social partners. Which is a system should consist of various elementsincluding legislation and compliance assurance mechanisms as well as training andinformation network. The system needs to be continuously improved through theformulation and implementation of national OSH programs as guided by thePromotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention andRecommendation The risks for occupational accidents and diseases at work have to bemanaged by the employers and workers who are facing with them. In order to ensureeffective action, it is essential to establish occupational safety and health (OSH)management systems at all workplaces for continual improvement of workingenvironment and preventive measures. The ILO guidelines on occupational safety andhealth management systems provide guidance for action at the national and enterpriselevels Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems (ILOOSH2001) 01 January 2001. The guidelines have been developed according toLinda Omer Ali 6internationally agreed principles defined by the ILO’s tripartite constituents. Thepractical recommendations of these guidelines are intended for use by all those whohave responsibility for OSH management. This second edition includes new additionsto the bibliographyudit Matrix for the ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety andHealth Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001) 02 January 2013 This guide is apractical tool that will help in identifying the strengths and weaknesses in anorganization’s OSH management system, and in highlighting opportunities forimprovement. It should be used in tandem with the Implementation Guidance for theILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems, ILO-OSH2001. OSH Management System: A tool for continual improvement 28 April 2011Thereport discusses the application of an Occupational Safety and Health ManagementSystem (OSHMS) for the effective management of hazards and risks in theworkplace. It has been prepared to serve as background to the 2011 World Day for •C187 – Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention,2006 (No. 187) Labor inspection and occupational safety and health managementsystems. National System for Recording and Notification of Occupational DiseasesPractical Guide This practical guide has been prepared to help member States toestablish and improve their national systems for recording and notification ofoccupational diseases. It is aimed at relevant people in the responsible authorities,such as the ministries of labor, health, and social security; at those in occupationalsafety and health inspection, occupational safety and health services, national socialsecurity institutions, and compensation boards. and at employers, workers and theirorganizations. It also includes practical and detailed guidance on compiling andanalyzing data collected through national disease surveillance systems. List ofoccupational diseases (revised 2010). Identification and recognition of occupationaldiseases, Criteria for incorporating diseases in the ILO list of occupational diseases(OSH 74) 01 December 2010 The number of physical, chemical, biological andpsychosocial factors affecting workers’ health is constantly on the rise. The ILO hasbeen responding to the challenge of creating safe and healthy working conditionssince its founding in 1919. Agreed by governments as well as employers’ andworkers’ organizations, this new list, approved in March 2010, reflects the state of theart in the identification and recognition of occupational diseases. The list, annexedhere to the List of Occupational Diseases Recommendation, 2002 (No. 194), isdesigned to assist countries in their prevention, recording, notification and, ifLinda Omer Ali 7applicable, compensation of diseases caused by work. recording, notification and, ifapplicable, compensation of diseases caused by work. ILO Codes of Practice andGuides on Occupational Health 01 January 2009. Main ILO Conventions andRecommendations on Occupational Health 01 January 2009. Conference paperPrevention of occupational diseases 11 February 2013 This paper examines the scaleand dynamic nature of occupational diseases and the challenges associated with theirprevention. Based on the experiences and lessons learned in the recognition andprevention of occupational diseases, it describes the Office strategy and invites theGoverning Body to provide guidance on how to enhance the effectiveness of action toprevent occupational diseases. Chemicals are widely used throughout society, withboth positive and negative effects on health, well-being, socio-economic aspects andthe environment. Significant but still insufficient progress has been made ininternational chemicals management and regulations. Serious incidents still occur andthere are still negative impacts on both human health and the environment, and it isagreed that the sound management of chemicals at the workplace is directly linked toprotection of the environment. The protection of workers from the exposure tohazardous substances has always been a major concern for the ILO. Furthermore, thesound management of chemicals has continued importance, especially in the light thegoal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development ofensuring that, by the year 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways thatminimize significant adverse impacts on the environment and human health. So itrecommended to The enhancement of laws and regulations on occupational safety andhealth. Moreover, the coordination between Ministries of Health, Environment,Labor, Industry, and the relevant factories is urgently needed, Training of industrialsafety officers and workers, periodic machinery maintenance and periodic inspectionsof establishment and pre-employment and periodic medical examination for allworkers are also important. (3).