Municipal Solid Waste Reduction

There is a rise in the rate of waste production as well as procedures for disposing of waste which has become unsustainable because of economic, social and environmental costs (Dururu et al., 2015, p.98). In order to change this occurrence, waste practices and the attitudes of people have to be transformed; furthermore, product manufacturers and government agencies also have to change. Residents of Kano Municipal households have to learn to visualize materials not just as useless waste but as a valued resource that should be conserved. A recent survey reveals that Kano Municipal houses generate 62.5 percent of waste; this is the largest quantity of waste within the city (Hagerty et al., 2013, p.23). The rest of Kano area substitutes 5.8 percent of the waste except for industries that produce 2.9 percent of the waste.

It is important to note that solid waste is normally inappropriately managed because of the lack of an ideal recycling initiative and landfill. This research is meant to highlight the implications made on the environment as well as the importance of sustainable management of the solid waste. In the case of Kano municipal houses, the waste emits lethal gasses into the air because of poor management; moreover, bacterial isolates have been recovered from the area’s waste deposits, and they included coliform bacterial. Therefore, the government should introduce opportunities and facilities that encourage proper solid waste management as well as promote reuse and recycling of the waste. Furthermore, campaigns on environmental awareness should be considered so that the citizens can be sensitized to develop an appropriate attitude concerning waste disposal.

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It is essential for solid waste to be managed properly because it has an impact on the well-being and health of the urban residents. In Kano municipal houses, there are tons of solid waste that are not collected on its streets every day, and this has led to clogged drains which has established a conducive environment for pests which spread disease. As a result, infrastructural and health related problems have been realized. Furthermore, Kano municipal houses are not provided with services that collect the solid waste because of insufficient land planning owing to the formation of informal settlements that have narrow streets which are inaccessible for the collection trucks. This has resulted in lack of solid waste management measures in the area; it has also made the area residents vulnerable to the hazards of solid waste. The Kano Municipal houses residents should realize that it is important to protect their environment and health by managing the solid waste.     

Statement of the Problem

The residents of Kano municipal house need to understand the relationship between their behaviors and how it impacts the environment so that they can participate in solid waste reduction. Communities, municipalities, and nations try to reduce their reliance on incinerators and landfills by increasing composting, at-source reduction, and recycling (Keyter, 2010, p.19). Therefore, it is important for the government to emphasize on reducing municipal solid waste in Kano municipal houses through introducing alternatives like compositing and recycling. Nevertheless, the rapid population growth at the Kano municipal houses along with unplanned urbanization, absence of training concerning solid waste management techniques, and increasing economic activities complicates any initiatives put in place to enhance the community’s participation to reduce solid waste. Furthermore, the area’s consumption patterns have changed and this has altered the characteristics of the waste which has led to the instant change in the generation of solid waste. Reduction of solid waste in Kano municipal houses is hindered because the community does not have enough information on how this can be done so that they can participate in the initiative; as a result, solid waste management has become a complicated and difficult task. 

Significance of the Study

Even though households are major contributors when it comes to the generation of waste, it is important to know that this is subject to change depending on the economic development. For instance, there is a positive link between the waste generation and income levels because the less a household earns, the more likely they are to produce more solid waste (Koppenjan & Enserink, 2009, p.285). Similarly, generation of waste is based on the level of people’s perception towards waste; specifically, with regards to the way they use materials and handle waste, their interest concerning waste minimization and reduction, the manner in which they separate the wastes, and how they refrain from littering and indiscriminate dumping. The attitudes of the residents do not just affect how waste is generated, but also the effectiveness of waste collection services.

Ogawa (2008, p.57) states that the attitudes of a community can be influenced positively by carrying out awareness building campaigns that point out the negative effects of inappropriate waste collection concerning environmental conditions and public health, as well as the value of disposing solid waste effectively. Campaigns like these must also inform the public or community about the roles they play as waste generators as well as their rights as citizens with regards to receiving waste management services. Nonetheless, although attitudes towards the reduction of solid waste can be influenced positively through educational measures and public information, enhanced waste handling practices could hardly be maintained without practical alternatives of solid waste reduction. Therefore, awareness building initiatives must be coordinated through improving waste collection services with the help of the community. At the same time, waste generated by people as well as their disposal patterns are fueled by what they observe from their neighbors (Renn & Webler, 2012, p.76). Hence, besides offering general awareness, enhanced solid waste management in Kano municipal houses relies on the reliability of all alternatives for waste collection as well as a consensus between neighbors insisting that such improvements are possible and important for the area. 

Programs to disseminate the knowledge on solid waste reduction and enhance behavior patterns as well as attitudes concerning waste management are critical. Programs like these can only succeed if they are founded on proper understanding of cultural and social characteristics of a community like Kano municipal households. The pressure to enhance the solid waste reduction through public participation will arise if awareness is done concerning the health and environmental impacts of ineffective waste collection services. Sustainability and effectiveness of the municipal waste management practices will rely on how the public identifies with it and voluntarily take responsibility of the facilities and systems. 

Research Questions

• How can the public be influenced to take part in municipal solid waste management?

• What impact does solid waste have on the Kano municipal households and how can their perception be changed with regards to reducing solid waste?

• How effective will it be if the Kano municipal households’ residents participate in solid waste reduction?

Research Objectives

• To ensure that proper methods and techniques are used to ensure that the Kano Municipal households’ residents engage in solid waste reduction practices.

• To find out the impact solid waste has in Kano Municipal households as well investigate ways in which their attitudes and perception can be influenced so that they can take part in solid waste reduction.

• To identify the benefits the residents of Kano Municipal households will enjoy if they participate in solid waste reduction practices. 

Limitations of the Study

It is not possible for the community alone to progress with the initiative of solid waste reduction because the government and other relevant bodies need to contribute other aspects so that this can be successful. Furthermore, there are limited studies that focus on the importance of public participation in solid waste reduction and this reduces the scope of reviews that need to be carried out so that the research can be objective.