Monitoring andevaluating the various facets of the scientific enterprise is a necessary andintegral part of science policy. Developments in R & D activities andcompeting disciplinary claims for financial resources require intelligentallocation of resources, which presupposes knowledge of the activities andperformance of the innovation system. The development of Science, Technologyand Innovation (STI) indicators have grown substantially at the global levelduring the last two decades. However, the analysisof data is the most skilled task in the research process. It calls for theresearchers own judgment and skill. Analysis means, the critical examination ofthe assembled and grouped data for studying the characteristics of the objectunder study and determining the patterns of relationships among the variablesrelating to it.
Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to achievethis. However, Science research mostoften requires quantitative analysis involving the application of variousstatistical techniques. Bibliometrics is one ofthe techniques which are a set of mathematical and statistical methods used toanalyze and measure the quantity and quality of books, articles and other formsof publications. It is considered as a recognized exercise to measure theresearch output in terms of publications. Predominantly, the bibliometric indicatorshelp organizations to make decisions, framing the policy, appointments,promotions and funding. However, these indicators also used as measuringtechniques for the research and detect the misallocation/misappropriation. Suchstudies will enable the authorities of the organization/institutions to provideadequate facilities to assess the research activities in a systematic manner.The Bibliometric study has become the prerequisite before the researcher getsinto Scientometrics analyses.
The potential ofbibliometric techniques in measuring Science was recognized in 1963 after DerekJohn de Solla Price’s of Little Science,Big Science (Price.1963), which decreed him the founding father ofScientometrics. A research publication is considered as an element ofscientific world and as bases of data.
Thus, the Scientometrics assessment ofresearch practice is based on a central presumption: the scientists andresearchers who have something imperative to publish their findings enthusiasticallyin the international or national journals. The routine exercise of scientificresearch reflects that in vital cases it motivates the young scientists –especially in the natural sciences and medical research fields. A similar state of affairs is emergingin the Social Science and Behavioral Sciences, Engineering and Technology andto a slighter range, the Humanities (Centre for Science and Technology Studies,2007; Van Leeuwen, 2006) as well. Scientometric andBibliometric studies are primarily providing linear ranking lists, have nowevolved into multidimensional indicators with the development of powerful data processingtools (UNESCO, 2001).
The research publication of a scientific literature isalso considered as a central indicator for assessing the scientificcapabilities (Okubo, 1997). Braun (1999) compares thescientometric analysis with medical diagnosis (Fig.1.1). In general, thebibliometric technique are useful tools for examining the scientific knowledgeand thus makes it possible to map the edifice and changing nature of scientificresource in the economy and society as a whole. The conventional measures areavailable in research papers in academic journals to denote research publications;citations and the number of citations per paper.
Garfield (1979) explains thata high citation count could be received by publishing low –quality work whichdrawn a lot of criticism. 1.2 Scientometrics AnalysisScientometrics is the quantitative study of scienceoutput or outcome in any form, not just records or bibliographies. It comprisesall the metrics studies related to science indicators, citation analyses,research evaluation, etc.
During the early 20th century, the application ofquantitative methods to library science was known as Statistical Bibliography (Sengupta,1992). Dr. S.
R.Ranganathan introduced the concept of Librametry on the lines ofbiometry, econometry and psycometry at the ASLIB Conference in 1948(Ranganathan, 1949 & 1969). In 1969, Pitchard used the term “Bibliometrics”to describe all the studies to quantify the process of written communication.In the same year, Fairthorne also defined Bibliometric as “the quantitativetreatment of the properties of recorded discourse and behavior pertaining toit” (Sengupta, 1992). Scientometrics is one of the most important measuresfor the assessment of scientific publications. Macias-Chapula argues that Scientometrics indicators have become an essentialto the scientific community to estimate the state-of-the-art of a given topic(quoted In Lolis et.
al. 2009). Scientometrics is related to and hasoverlapping with Bibliometrics and Informetrics. The terms Bibliometrics,Scientometrics and Informetrics refer to the component fields related to thestudy of the dynamics of disciplines as reflected in the production of theirliterature (Hood and Wilson, 2001). The word Scientometrics is the English translationof Nalimov’s classic monograph Naukometriy in 1969, which was fairly unfamiliarto the western researchers even after it was translated into English Language.
Dueto the limited access of internet and distribution, the word Scientometrics wasrarely used and cited. However, the term became popular after the introductionof the journal Scientometrics whichwas appeared in 1978 (Garfield, 2007). There are many definitions available forthe term Scientometrics in the literature.
Scientometrics is the quantitativestudy of the disciplines of science based on the published literature andcommunication. This could include identifying the emerging areas of scientificresearch, examining the development of research over a period of time, orgeographic and organizational distributions of research (Glossary of Thompson,2008).Scientometrics is a discipline which analyses the scientificpublications and citations appended to the papers to gain an understanding ofthe structure of science, development of science at the global level,performance of a country in a particular domain, performance of institutions,departments/ divisions, and scientific eminence of an individual scientist. Italso helps in knowing the information seeking behavior of scientists, authorsby way of identifying where they publish and what they cite.