Monitoring assessment of research practice is based on

Monitoring and
evaluating the various facets of the scientific enterprise is a necessary and
integral part of science policy. Developments in R & D activities and
competing disciplinary claims for financial resources require intelligent
allocation of resources, which presupposes knowledge of the activities and
performance of the innovation system. The development of Science, Technology
and Innovation (STI) indicators have grown substantially at the global level
during the last two decades.


However, the analysis
of data is the most skilled task in the research process. It calls for the
researchers own judgment and skill. Analysis means, the critical examination of
the assembled and grouped data for studying the characteristics of the object
under study and determining the patterns of relationships among the variables
relating to it. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to achieve
this.  However, Science research most
often requires quantitative analysis involving the application of various
statistical techniques.

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Bibliometrics is one of
the techniques which are a set of mathematical and statistical methods used to
analyze and measure the quantity and quality of books, articles and other forms
of publications. It is considered as a recognized exercise to measure the
research output in terms of publications. Predominantly, the bibliometric indicators
help organizations to make decisions, framing the policy, appointments,
promotions and funding. However, these indicators also used as measuring
techniques for the research and detect the misallocation/misappropriation. Such
studies will enable the authorities of the organization/institutions to provide
adequate facilities to assess the research activities in a systematic manner.
The Bibliometric study has become the prerequisite before the researcher gets
into Scientometrics analyses.


The potential of
bibliometric techniques in measuring Science was recognized in 1963 after Derek
John de Solla Price’s of Little Science,
Big Science (Price.1963), which decreed him the founding father of
Scientometrics. A research publication is considered as an element of
scientific world and as bases of data. Thus, the Scientometrics assessment of
research practice is based on a central presumption: the scientists and
researchers who have something imperative to publish their findings enthusiastically
in the international or national journals. The routine exercise of scientific
research reflects that in vital cases it motivates the young scientists –
especially in the natural sciences and medical research fields. A similar state of affairs is emerging
in the Social Science and Behavioral Sciences, Engineering and Technology and
to a slighter range, the Humanities (Centre for Science and Technology Studies,
2007; Van Leeuwen, 2006) as well.


Scientometric and
Bibliometric studies are primarily providing linear ranking lists, have now
evolved into multidimensional indicators with the development of powerful data processing
tools (UNESCO, 2001). The research publication of a scientific literature is
also considered as a central indicator for assessing the scientific
capabilities (Okubo, 1997).

      Braun (1999) compares the
scientometric analysis with medical diagnosis (Fig.1.1). In general, the
bibliometric technique are useful tools for examining the scientific knowledge
and thus makes it possible to map the edifice and changing nature of scientific
resource in the economy and society as a whole. The conventional measures are
available in research papers in academic journals to denote research publications;
citations and the number of citations per paper. Garfield (1979) explains that
a high citation count could be received by publishing low –quality work which
drawn a lot of criticism.


1.2       Scientometrics Analysis

Scientometrics is the quantitative study of science
output or outcome in any form, not just records or bibliographies. It comprises
all the metrics studies related to science indicators, citation analyses,
research evaluation, etc. During the early 20th century, the application of
quantitative methods to library science was known as Statistical Bibliography (Sengupta,
1992). Dr. S.R.Ranganathan introduced the concept of Librametry on the lines of
biometry, econometry and psycometry at the ASLIB Conference in 1948
(Ranganathan, 1949 & 1969). In 1969, Pitchard used the term “Bibliometrics”
to describe all the studies to quantify the process of written communication.
In the same year, Fairthorne also defined Bibliometric as “the quantitative
treatment of the properties of recorded discourse and behavior pertaining to
it” (Sengupta, 1992).


Scientometrics is one of the most important measures
for the assessment of scientific publications. Macias-Chapula argues that Scientometrics indicators have become an essential
to the scientific community to estimate the state-of-the-art of a given topic
(quoted In Lolis et. al. 2009). Scientometrics is related to and has
overlapping with Bibliometrics and Informetrics. The terms Bibliometrics,
Scientometrics and Informetrics refer to the component fields related to the
study of the dynamics of disciplines as reflected in the production of their
literature (Hood and Wilson, 2001).


The word Scientometrics is the English translation
of Nalimov’s classic monograph Naukometriy in 1969, which was fairly unfamiliar
to the western researchers even after it was translated into English Language. Due
to the limited access of internet and distribution, the word Scientometrics was
rarely used and cited. However, the term became popular after the introduction
of the journal Scientometrics which
was appeared in 1978 (Garfield, 2007). There are many definitions available for
the term Scientometrics in the literature. Scientometrics is the quantitative
study of the disciplines of science based on the published literature and
communication. This could include identifying the emerging areas of scientific
research, examining the development of research over a period of time, or
geographic and organizational distributions of research (Glossary of Thompson,

Scientometrics is a discipline which analyses the scientific
publications and citations appended to the papers to gain an understanding of
the structure of science, development of science at the global level,
performance of a country in a particular domain, performance of institutions,
departments/ divisions, and scientific eminence of an individual scientist. It
also helps in knowing the information seeking behavior of scientists, authors
by way of identifying where they publish and what they cite.