# MaterialsBurette5 do and like poles repel, just like

MaterialsBurette5 beakersStopwatchTap WaterDistilled WaterVinegarSaltSugar2 strong permanent magnetsMeasuring cupProcedurePour exactly 200 milliliters of tap water into the measuring cup and then transfer that into the burette.Use the stopwatch to measure the seconds it takes for the 200 milliliters of tap water to flow out of the burette. Repeat the whole process for the burette without the magnets 9 more times for a total of 10 trials. Then take the average of the 10 trials.Position the two identical strong permanent magnets on either side at the bottom of the burette.Pour exactly 200 milliliters of tap water into the measuring cup and then transfer that into the burette.Use the stopwatch to measure the seconds it takes for the 200 milliliters of tap water to flow out of the burette. Repeat the whole process for the burette with the magnets 9 more times for a total of 10 trials. Then take the average of the 10 trials.Mix 50 grams of salt with 200 milliliters of tap water in a separate beaker. Then fill the burette with the salt solution using the measuring cup. Using the stopwatch, measure how many seconds it takes for the water to flow out of the burette.Repeat the step 8 9 more times for a total of 10 trials. Then take the average of the 10 trials.Remove the two permanent magnets from the burette.Repeat steps 8 and 9.In a separate beaker, mix 50 grams of sugar and 200 milliliters of tap water. This is the sugar solution. Measure 200 milliliters of vinegar and 200 milliliters of distilled water and put them in separate beakers.Repeat steps 1 to 11 with each of these different solutions.Objects that make fields that attract or repel other objects are known as magnets (Lucas 1). Almost all magnets have two poles: a north pole and a south pole. These poles are where the magnetic force is the strongest (Hecht 679) . The poles on a magnet are very similar to the two kinds of electrical charges (Kirkland 19). The north and south poles attract just like positive and negative charges do and like poles repel, just like positive and negative charges do (Kirkland 19). One difference however, is that positive and negative charges can be separated put poles cannot (Kirkland 19). When you split a magnet in half, the two individual pieces will always form their own north and south poles (Kirkland 19).   Magnetism can be defined as the “physical phenomena arising from the force of magnets” (Lucas 1).  It is caused by the motion of electrical charges (Lucas 2). Electrical charges can come in many forms such as an “electric current in a conductor, charged particles moving through space, or the motion of an electron in an atomic orbital” (Bleaney 1). It is also caused by the properties of atoms, which act like tiny magnets (Kirkland 19). The tiny magnets or atoms form magnetic domains within a material and “if the domains all line up in the same direction, than their individual magnitudes add and the material becomes magnetized” (Kirkland). However, if the domains are randomly scattered, then the object will display barely any magnetism because they cancel out (Kirkland 19). How much the domains line up determines how strong a magnet is (Kirkland 19). Iron’s domains line up the most out of all the other magnets, which is why it is the strongest (Kirkland 19). Doing things like banging a magnet with a hammer or heating a magnet will cause the domains to misalign, therefore weakening the magnet (Hecht 687)A magnetic field, sometimes called a magnetic induction or a magnetic flux density, is the space surrounding a magnet (Bleaney 2). They are measured in teslas and are always symbolized by the letter B (Bleaney 2). A force is exerted on all the particles in a magnetic field (Lucas 2). “The force acting on an electrically charged particle in a magnetic field depends on the magnitude of the charge, the velocity of the particle, and the strength of the magnetic field” (Lucas 2). The most common method of visualizing magnetic fields is through field lines (Stern 7). They are basically the lines a compass needle spinning near a magnet or electrical current takes (Stern 7). For example, Earth’s magnetic field is in a toroidal shape (Lucas 5). The field lines start at the south pole, curve around  in space, and converge again in the north pole (Stern 8). Field lines are mainly for displaying the structure of a magnetic force but they can also be used for many other things (Stern 10). All things experience magnetism to some degree. However, permanent magnets, which are made out of materials like iron, cobalt, nickel, and some rare earth metals, display the most magnetism (Lucas 9). This type of magnetism is called ferromagnetism. Ferromagnetism is the strongest type of magnetism – it is the only type that creates forces strong enough to be felt by humans, and is responsible for the common phenomena of magnetism encountered in our everyday lives (Lucas 3). Other weaker forms of magnetism include diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and antiferromagnetism. (Lucas 10-20). Diamagnetism, which is the type of magnetism that will be observed in this experiment, is when a material creates an opposing magnetic field when exposed to an external magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet (“All Science Fair Projects”). The magnetic field from an external permanent magnet will have flux lines curved away from the diamagnetic materials, which results in repulsion (“All Science Fair Projects”). The magnetic field will also be very slightly weakened by diamagnetism (“All Science Fair Projects”). Water is an example of a diamagnetic substance and is therefore able to weaken and repel magnetic fields (“All Science Fair Projects”). When salt is mixed with the water, then the weakening effect is further amplified (“All Science Fair Projects”). If water is able to repel a magnetic field, then theoretically the rate of flow of water through a narrow channel should slow down when subjected to a magnetic field along the channel (“All Science Fair Projects”).Bibliography”All Science Fair Projects.” Science Fair Projects Ideas, VBulletin Solutions, www.all-science-fair-projects.com/project1209_57_1.html.Bleaney, Brebis, Eustace E. Suckling, Edwin Kashy, Sharon Bertsch McGrayne, and Frank Neville H. Robinson. “Magnetism.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 28 July 2016. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.Kirkland, Kyle. Electricity and Magnetism. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2007. Print.Jezeck, Geno. “How Magnets Work.” How Magnets Work. Custom Magnets, 2006. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.Lucas, Jim. “What Is Magnetism? | Magnetic Fields & Magnetic Force.” LiveScience. Purch, 28 July 2015. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.Stern, David P. “Magnetism.” NASA. NASA, 25 Nov. 2001. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.”Types of Magnets.” Types of Magnets. Thomasnet. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.Hecht, Eugene. Physics: Algebra, Trig. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole, 1998. Print.