Khadi cloth is any cloth oven
on handloom from handspun cotton, silk or wollen yarn or a mixture of any two
or all of such yarns. Handspun yarn weaving
in handlooms in India qualifies any cloth to be called as khadi.
Gandhiji started the khadi movement during the 1920s. Khadi commands the
sentimental value of Indians. During the pre-independence period developement
of khadi was closely linked with the freedom movement. Khadi represented
aspiration for freedom from bondage. It me be for this reason that JAWAHARLAL
NEHRU describe khadi as “the livery of freedom”.For MAHATMA GANDHIJI “khadi,
vastra nahi, vichar hain” (khadi is not merely a cloth. It is a school of
thought). Gandhiji could motivate thousands of people to take a vow to use only
khadi for their clothing. Khadi also emarged as a symbol of trothfulness,
integrity and patriotism. Gandhiji’s appeal to people to wear khadi clothes was
for creating self-reliance and bringing unity among Indians. Khadi could
instill Swadeshi spiri in millions of Indians and inspired them to make great
sacrifices to boycott foreign cloths and use khadi cloths.
Today khadi has been a source
of livelihood for more then 10 lakh rural people including spinners, weavers
and other persons. There is also growing awareness among the people for
adopting natural and eco-friendly products. Khadi is perceived as one of the
major agents in our flight against globle warming and cimate change. Khadi
carries lowest carbon footprint. Production of one meter khadi fabrics
consumers of three litres of water as against 55 litres in conventionaltextile
mill. Khadi is also energy efficient. Earlier human energy was use for
production of cotton yarn. Now for production of otton slivers ambar charkha
uses electric energy. But use of energy is much lesser than energy used in mill
made fabric and cloth.
Designers see the khadi
garments as luxurious and call it as ‘haute couture’ . There is now
increasing demand , especially form the youth for khadi garments designed to
meet their taste and need. Despite the competition from other fabrics, khadi
has survives. Its USP (Unique selling proposition) as a fabric manifests in its
self-assurance of purity and eco-friendly character. Khadi is over on handloom
form handspun yarn. This makes khadi unique and resilient as it keeps the
wearer warm in winter and cool in summer. Thus, khadi is important for variety
of factors and needs to be popularized.
means any industry located in rural area which produces any goods or renders
any service with or without the use of power and in which fixed investment per
head of any artisan or a worker do not exceed Rs 1.00 lakh in plain areas and
Rs. 1.50 lakh in hilly areas. KVIC has classified the village industries into seven
categories, namely mineral based (e.g. cottage pottery, utensilwashing
powder etc.) forest based ( handmade paper, cane & bamboo work etc.)
, agro based and food (e.g.
noodle making, ghani oil, bee keeping, leaf cup making, etc), polymer
and chamical based (cottage soap,
candle making, mehendi making etc)., engineering and non-conventional (
e.g. carpentry, black smithy, etc) textile excluding khadi ( e.g.
tailoring, readymade garments, embroidery etc), service industry ( e.g.
laundry, te stall etc).
Industries excluded form the concept of
village industry include industry/business connected with processing,
manufacture or sale of intoxicant items, hotal or dhaba selling liquer,
cultivation of any corp, animal husbandry, manufacturing of polythene baggs of
less than 20 micron thickness, rural transport etc.
VILLAGE INDUSTRIES HAVE A NUMBER OF
MERITS. THESE INCLUDE:
• They can use local resources and
craftsmanship of people.
• They can meet local demand and sometime
can even export their products.
• They can generate move employment
opportunities both for rural and urban youth.
• Production in village industries is by
masses; not mass production.
• They can provide employment almost in
• They are eco-friendly and hence can help
in preservation of environment.
• They recuire less capital; but more
• They can use low cost technology instead
of capital intensive technology.
• They can help in decentralized growth of
• They can check migration of people from
rural to urban areas.
• They have favorable incremental capital
• They consume less energy compared to small
and medium enterprise (SME) sector.
• They have short gestation period.
• They can improve the local economy.
• They can be the seedbed for promotion of
There are several
programmes for promotion and develpoment of village Industries. Among the
programmes, Prime Minisier’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) is an important
programme for employment generation both in rural and urban areas through setting up micro enterprises. Benefit
of this programme can be availed of by individuals; self help groups (SHG),
production cooperative socities and charitable trusts for starting micro
enterprises in the village industries sector.
There are also a number
of organizations and institutions for promotion of village industries. At the
national level there is the Khadi and
Village Industries Commission (KVIC) , a statutory organization created
by an Act of Parliament in 1957 with the social objective of providing
employment; the economic objective of producing saleable articles, and the
wider objectives of creating self-reliance amongst the people and building up a
strong rural community sprit. At the state level there are state Khadi and Village Industries Board (KVIB),
khadi institutions etc. KVIC provides A to Z facilities for the developement of