Kapata that only sung when youths are gathered, especially for those who have a love relationship. In another side, Latupeirissa (2011: 44-47) explains that there are three main Kapata in Maluku:1. Kapata HarusiteThis Kapata is used for formal custom ceremonies such as the inauguration of the building in village, the inauguration of sub village, the tribute to the greatest guest and any other similar ceremonies. The lyrics contains advises from the ancestors, custom rules and the point of view on communal life. 2.
Kapata Mako-MakoA kind of Kapata that used to pray in the purpose of thanksgiving, asking for something and etc. the lyrics contains the gratitude for God Almighty, the complimentary to kings and those who have contribution to the community. 3. Kapata CakaleleIt used as the preparation for battle, celebrating the heroic. The lyrics contains advises from the ancestors.
This kind of Kapata is usually sung in night with drinking alcohol. Furthermore, below are some of Kapata in Central Maluku that usually perform or sing in several customs ceremonies:1. Kapata of Advise ami mahai dunya tine sei iyoso mai, otarimalo mai sei iyoso ahia otarimalo ahia le soi mahai dunia tineku moke waso mae iti mala aherate supu mae titil le e, ap mutuwao su u oi taano pisara am le meaning: We live in this worldWho makes goodness, will take in return goodness as well Who makes badness, will take in return badness as well Who lives in this world? If he/she makes goodness in heaven as well This is an oath of the Elders That cannot be forgottenThis kapata is from Nolloth Village, Central Maluku. It describes the relationship among families and also contains advice to living as unity, one loves another. 2. Kapata to welcome honorable guests Olahu ulo malu-malu e upu-upu pariaru e Upu tuama rombongan Mae-mae upu Mae-me upu e upu tuamu rombongan Mae-mae I usu la uru marege e Mae-mae upu Mae-mae eti no u ama ulu siralou Mae-mae upu Mae-mae oti no u ama ulu siralou o Meaning: We pretty long waiting for your visit The honorable guests The head of the group Come in and we talk from heart to heartThis Kapata is from Kulur Village, Central Maluku. This is performed to greet the guests from government or other honorable guests.
3. Kapata of Oath Sei hale hatu, hatu hela pei o Sei lesi sou, sou lisa pei o Meaning: Who turns the stone, it will rest on him/her Who disobey the rules, he/she will get the risk This Kapata is usually sung in all parts of Central Maluku either in Seram island, Haruku islands, Nusalaut island, or Saparua island. It describes the customary oath performed in custom ceremonies. It tightens all people to obey the rules carefully. 3.4. The Value of Kapata For Cultural Life In MalukuGenerally, Kapata are performed not only considering the textual elements but also in the form of performing the art.
Performance or resistance of Kapata is not focused on texts, but in requires other elements like musical instruments, Apapua, (a cultural term refers to “requirements” or “trimming” that become a must in ritual ceremonies, can be seen as the parallel trimming like Sesajen in Java or Sunda. Materially, Apapua can be betel, nut, tobacco and Sopi (the traditional drink in Maluku). performer, listener, dances equipment and etc. according to Sedyawati (Pudentia, 2008:7-8 in Latupapua, 2012:123) some oral literature performances are: (a) Purely literature reading, (b) Literature reading with simple movements and or limited music, (c) story presentation with dance, and (d) story presentation through scenes actualization with some players (characters) doing dialogue and dancing accompanied by music. In that explanation, it seems clear that the presentation of Kapata in Central Maluku has a tendency to move back behind between the reading of pure literature until the presentation of art performance completed by scenes, music and dances. Kapata in ritual ceremonies involve Tifa and Apapua as the major requirements. The repetition pattern in text resistance can consider as the formula of the reader or speaker to memorize the text, mostly narrative text.
Meanwhile, in the interview with Drs. Semuel A. Toisuta, the head of Cultural Park of Maluku, he stated that Kapata is a form of the oldest music.
It contains messages of oral literature or we can deliver the literature by the way we play music and also by resistance. It is not an ordinary way of communication. It brings goodness in advises. It is also can be performed by one group of family or in Central Maluku it is mentioned as Lumatauw, a communal based community. In this place, Kapata is performed for several purposes such as for happiness and sadness occasions.
The occasions in Central Maluku when it is sung are Pamoi/Souru, the ceremonies of taking wife or husband for the first time entering the Lumatauw. However, this is not complete or as ordinary as we perceive. We need betel, nut, tobacco and Sopi to strengthen the occasion / ceremony.
People who in charge to sing Kapata, shall dress up in traditional way. For man, he shall only wear Cidaku, the traditional pants while women will wear clothes like Tenun or the traditional ones. Similar to Foruk in Western Southeast of Maluku and Tiarka in Southwest of Maluku, Kapa is performed with particular Rhythm and person who sings Tiarka or Foruk will wear Tenun or Basta and the fur of Cendrawasih on his or her head.
Therefore we can say that Kapata is the oldest music in Maluku. The language used is in the form of ritual speech or is Bahasa Tana, which is the native language in Maluku. In the contrary, when a parent wants to give an advice to his/he children then usually they use Kapata with Ambonese Malay, in order to give advice. This tells us that Kapata has a friction from the language used and its sacred factor. (Interview with Drs.
Semuel A. Toisuta, the head of Cultural Park of Maluku). For example, the ritual Kapata that apply Bahasa Tana such as: “Sei hale hatu hatu lisa pei. Si lesi sou sou lesi pei o” which means: an oath that “Who is turn the stone, the stone will in return reverse him/her.
Who disobey the oath, the oath will kill him/her”.In modern life, nowadays, Kapata is becoming the part of performing art. Then the speaker usually applies Ambonese Malay in order to make the audience understand since the modern audience also does not recognize Bahasa Tana, the mother tongue of Maluku. 3.
5. The Problem of Endangered Tradition Most of oral traditions in Indonesia are facing the reality as endangered tradition. This problem seems as a usual since it caused by some causes that spread all over provinces in Indonesia including Kapata in Central Maluku. Latupapua and friends in a book of “Kapata, Tradisi Lisan di Maluku” describe that the causes are based on the reality in the field such as; the telling-process or inheritance process, either vertically or horizontally, not appropriate as it should.
The inheritance process vertically is on the inheriting process in terms of intergeneration, where usually the elders who master the text of Kapata give to their youth generation. This process might be happened in a relationship between fathers and the sons or grandparents and the grandchildren. Besides, the horizontal inheritance process happens within in one particular generation that cause by the migration process, or other socio-cultural activities. (2012:117). Based on the interview with all informants it is found that the mastery of Kapata only takes out in the old generations and only those who are in the part of custom organization or usually be said as custom figures. Thus, we cannot find any young people in Maluku that can utter or sing Kapata with the sacred of Bahasa Tana. In addition, the young generation does not have any culture awareness on the importance of Kapata. According to Latupapua, some of them are not willing to learn or copy the texts of Kapata because they consider them as the holy, sacred text and belong to the ancestors, the hereditary things that shall “preserve”.
The action of teaching, telling, and giving to anyone is considered as forbidden that can “extinct” the holiness of Kapata. The limited documentation on text of Kapata seems to be the major problem. In fact, young generation needs to recognize it by having a reference or even the text dealing with Kapata. It is all because the object is only coming from the certain elders who are also in limited amount. It seems like the coming researchers must conduct other researches in order to order the documentation of Kapata, either in texts or records. Another factor is the effect of modernity.
The inheritance process is ineffective since the young generation in one cultural community tends to focus on the modernity and its product, such as modern music, modern life