IntroductionTechnology began producing vehicles and became one of

IntroductionTechnology has changed a lot in recent years. Siegfried Marcus brought about the idea of cars by making the first gasoline engine. Like the gasoline engines, the first diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel.  After a lot of brainstorming, Karl Benz developed the first gasoline powered engine, and this was the first ever produced vehicle in the world.  After Benz, Ford motor company began producing vehicles and became one of the lead car selling brand in the United States. Gasoline cars began selling all over the world especially in Europe and America.Today, we can clearly see that automobiles have changed a lot over the time duration, especially in recent years electric cars have begun selling all over the world to create a pollution-free environment, a noble goal against the effects of global warming.  This action has given rise to companies like Tesla with their entire production line and BMW with models like the BMW i8, or the small compact i3.Global Warming and Emission ControlRecently, Elon Musk unveiled the Tesla Roadster, a 200,000-dollar vehicle capable of accelerating faster and achieving a top speed higher than any car on the planet, having the best fuel consumption as well.  And the best part, as everybody says about it, is that it’s electric.  Very few emissions come out of the back of the vehicle and it harms no polar bears in the long run.  It all sounds very good.  But the main question that needs to be answered is: is it the future? A lot of people seem skeptic about it and think that it is still many years away.  I, however, think otherwise.  As we have seen in Elon Musk’s latest creation, electric vehicles have reached a point of almost perfection and soon enough, the long standing holy trinity of coal, oil and natural gas shall be a thing of the past.  Everybody has been saying this for a very long time, and the fact is that that long time is now over.  The time where electric power is becoming the primary contributor to vehicles has come.  The “Electric Revolution”, has started. And it’s not only Tesla that has started this revolution.  On the contrary, it plays a much smaller role since Tesla is a company only afforded by wealthy.  Even Elon Musk himself said once, “Tesla stuff is expensive”.Everybody’s been hearing all the time these days that the world is heating up.  Global Warming is, as the news states it, “taking the world by storm”.  The temperatures are rising in all parts of the globe.  Glaciers are melting, which is leading to more earthquakes and causing the loss of lives and making many homeless.  The melting and rising of icecaps and temperature (respectively) is endangering many species of animals that prefer to live in the tundra climates, for example, the polar bears and the penguins.  I ask, what are the reasons for this?  Amongst many, one of the biggest reasons is the burning of coal, oil and natural gas into the atmosphere and the leakage of oils into the rivers and seas, leading to widespread pollution.  Air pollution and water pollution are one of the prime contributors to global warming.Electric Cars and the Automobile IndustryMany huge automobile organizations like general motors are also saying that electric vehicles are the future. General electric plans to introduce twenty new car models in the next few years (Zooming towards an Electric Car Future).  In a recent interview, Tom Ashbrook, General Motors Chief of Global Product Development said, “General Motors believes in an all-electric future” (Zooming Toward An Electric Car Future ).  As in electric cars.  They don’t exactly have a choice.  China and Europe and California are in the driver’s seat.  And they want electric. Self-driving cars will be electric.  And Detroit is going.  This hour, On Point: Here comes the electric car future, for real”. So, we can see that top tier automobile vehicles companies are slowly changing the platform their cars are made at.  And it’s only a matter of time until supercar companies also transfer over to electric power.  Mercedes tried it with the SLS AMG and a car company in Croatia is making an electric supercar called the Rimac (Rimac Website).A big advantage of electric cars is less maintenance which is generally overlooked although regular maintenance of gas-powered cars sometimes costs a small fortune (25000, 50000, 75000, and 100000 miles inspections).  Electric cars only need check-ups on their wiring integrity, wheels, brakes, steering, and battery in comparison to a gas-powered car’s maintenance, which includes replacement of broken engine parts such as belts, hoses, radiators, oil changes, brakes, steering systems, etc.  Electric cars do not require many check-ups because electric cars are more energy efficient than gas- powered cars and consequently cause less stress and deterioration as compared to an inefficient machine.  This invariably increases the life of the car as well as requires less maintenance.Batteries and New MaterialsThe research on future electric cars is hinging on extending the battery life, reducing battery costs, and recharging times.  Fortunately, this technology has already been developed but for a different purpose.  Unfortunately, some of this technology is classified.  Dry and long-life batteries were required for Satellite Communications in the 60s.  At that time the size of satellites was smaller (meaning less equipment requiring less power) and the life of the satellites were a few years.  As the requirement of larger and larger satellites grew (costs of over $300 million) the primary requirement were batteries that could power the satellite for several hours when the sunlight was cut off as the satellite was masked behind the earth as it continued its orbit (Satellite Communications, 2nd Edition).  This research yielded dry batteries using Nickel – Manganese and other materials with extraordinary long life and quick charging as soon as solar energy became available.  Today some of the modern satellites weigh several tons.  One can only imagine the size, efficiency and capacity of these batteries (Satellite Communication Systems: Systems Techniques and Technology, 5th Edition.).The development of newer materials like carbon fiber (Graphene) has further revolutionized the entire spectrum of engineering.  Some of the biggest changes are expected in mechanical and electronics engineering.  Steel and aluminum are being replaced by light weight and stronger carbon fibers and silicon based electronics will vanish as future microelectronic circuits will be built using graphene as the substrate.  When these newer materials find their way in next generation batteries electric cars will be cheaper than gas-guzzling cars besides the enormous benefits to the environment and climate control. Due to the high rate of advancement in the industry, it is only a matter of time before efficient batteries and motors make more power than their motor engine alternatives.It is now also being said that electricity is less expensive than diesel or petrol, since the engines in electric vehicles have engines of simpler design.  A co-author of a study at the University of Leeds said, “We were surprised and encouraged because, as we scale up production, pure electric vehicles are going to be becoming cheaper and we expect battery costs are going to fall.” (Electric Cars Are Already Less Expensive to Own and Operate than Gas-Guzzling Vehicles).  So, I ask, why buy petrol or diesel engine vehicles in the first place?  I believe that there must be some point to everything, and the way I see it is that they don’t have any point.  They cost more, they harm the environment and they create more noise as well since a battery does not create any noise other than a small whine, which does not bother the passengers or the people around the car at all.  Whereas any motor car, especially if there’s one with a larger engine, passing through a small town or neighborhood is sure to cause more noise than an electric car.One of the most important advantages of electric powered vehicles is that of the personal cost involved. For example, you have an electric car and you come home after a long drive and you see the range of the car has fallen to almost zero and you need to charge it up.  No problem there, since you can just plug in the car in the home and it will be charged up ready to go again the next morning.  It is not consuming huge amounts of electricity and is not costing you a lot of money.  With a gas – powered car: You come home after a long drive and you see that the petrol or diesel in the car is almost finished.  You are concerned as you think, “Ah, need to keep fifty bucks for that”.  And when you go the next time to a gas station, in the case the fuel in the car is almost zero, you must be cautious in case the car runs out on the way to the gas station.  Now you might say, what if you must drive a much longer distance?  What if your only means to travel to a certain city is by car and your only method of commute is the car?  And what if there are no charging ports for your vehicle on the way and even if they are, what to do if your car takes too long to charge?  Do you stop at every stop for a whole night?  I believe that is where the potential drawbacks of the electric vehicle come into play, taking us into the other side of my argument.Potential Drawbacks of the Electric Vehicle:Just as I said above, electric vehicles, as appealing as they are, do have an extremely small range and cannot function for long distance travel.  Granted, there are electric car charging ports at many areas along motorways where the idea is that the people can charge their vehicles for a short while and then be on their way.  This seems like a good idea, but many cars need a charge of more than five hours, which seems like a long pitstop.  Hence the idea of a motorway charging port does not make sense and this can be regarded as one of the major drawbacks of the electric vehicle.  However, many motorway stations now have rapid chargers at their stations that can rapidly charge your electric vehicle in less or around than thirty minutes.  But it also depends on the car of the battery and not all motorways have been equipped with rapid charging ports.One of the most important things that everyone needs to remember is that, as good as the prospect of an electric vehicle sounds, it is an economic burden on the buyer when you compare it with a car or an SUV which is its petrol or diesel equivalent.  A mid-range Tesla’s Model S costs in the range of around ninety thousand dollars (Tesla Website) whereas the Nissan Leaf costs around thirty thousand dollars (Nissan Website).  The Nissan Leaf is a hatchback and if you look for the petrol/diesel alternatives in the market, you can find some decent sedans which have more room and are much more practical than the Nissan.  So, a person may ask, why should he spend more when he can spend less on a petrol-powered car and save some cash, which he may use for the fuel?  This sounds reasonable and I believe is one aspect of the electric vehicle that we must address.  Moreover, even if the person makes the one-time investment of buying the electric vehicle, if he or she must replace the batteries of the car at any point of time down the road, that is another investment ranging from $1000 to $6000, not including the labor cost of replacing all the batteries 8.  So, the main question the consumer is going to ask is, Is it worth it?  And with all the evidence, I am afraid that some people might not be willing to make that big an investment.Lastly, we also have to realize that, as much as electric vehicles are being talked about and are on the news, they are not that common as much as we think they are.  When we go out into the market and see all our options, we find that they are all very limited.  The Nissan Leaf is somewhat an affordable car, but since it is a small compact hatchback, it is not practical with people with large families.  Tesla’s are out of the income bracket of most of the population, since most of them are very expensive and only the Model 3 is somewhat affordable at thirty-five thousand dollars.  The other Tesla models are extremely expensive.  Indeed, even Elon Musk, Tesla’s founder has stated, “Tesla stuff is expensive”.  Many people count the Toyota Prius as an electric alternative, but we must remember, the Prius is a hybrid with a 1.5-liter engine that requires petrol or diesel to run and since my essay only includes electric vehicles, it is not in our list.  So, a lack of options coupled with high cost does make the people think whether buying an electric vehicle is a good idea after all, or they should just stick to the traditional motor engine based car and sort of “play it safe”.Conclusion:Although electric cars face several drawbacks, the positive features exceed those drawbacks.  With new technologies mentioned above electric cars will soon exist with no defects or lesser defects than gas-operated vehicles.  Although some proponents of cars claim that gas powered cars will remain superior, current research indicates that electric cars are the future of the car industry for many reasons:(a)  Reduce global warming as they produce zero emissions and conserve nonrenewable resources.(b)  More convenient to the owner because they require less maintenance and can be charged from their own homes.(c) Electric cars are fast becoming cost effective because they maintain cheap overall costs than gas-powered cars and electricity is cheaper than gas.(d) They produce zero to very less sound and is very friendly to the neighborhood around