Introduction to the education of their children. Both


The Middle Ages are an interesting period to study for
several reasons. In particular because of the ten centuries-duration, which allows
the acquisition of a broad view of the society of the time and the full
understanding of the changes that it suffered. Nevertheless, it is often
difficult to deal with this epoch, because of the lack of clear and precise
documentation. This has led many to make generalizations about medieval culture
and society, based on prejudices and stereotypes, as in the case of women’s
education and their participation in the cultural development of their
countries. Unfortunately, it is not rare to hear that in the Middle Ages women
were completely ignorant. The essay aims to prove the opposite, by clarifying
some ambiguous concepts such as literacy and by presenting the varieties of
medieval education. Moreover, it will linger on a new idea of womanhood which
developed during the late Middle Ages, on the crucial role women played in the
assessment of some cultural changes and the importance which was given to
mothers in relation to the education of their children. Both men and women got
involved in the educational and environment, but in different ways. Despite being
considered inferior by men and despite living in a male-centered society, some
of them succeeded in raising their voices and share their opinion, as it will
be shown with respect to Christine de Pizan.

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Education in the Middle Ages

Medieval education is a very complex topic that has to
be introduced gradually. First of all, it is necessary to explain the medieval concept
of literacy. Latin was the official language of the Church and proficiency in
the field was a requirement to be part of the clergy. A person was considered
literate if they knew Latin (Green 3). From my standpoint, this is a very
important fact to bear in mind, because it means that the ability of reading
and writing was not included in what was considered “literate”. Therefore, at
the time, whoever was not proficient in Latin was perceived as uneducated even
though being perfectly able to read and write. This view is controversial and
surely very different from the one people have nowadays.

As it was explained
in class, inside of the Church women were perceived as inferior to men. To comprehend
this perception, one must resort to the Sacred Scriptures. In fact, at the very
beginning of the Bible, in the book of Genesis, it is explained that God
created Adam, whereas Eve was born from one of Adam’s ribs (Bell 754). This
clearly established a hierarchical difference between the two genders since the
start of times. Moreover, women were defined by their bodies, while men by
their minds and their souls. Consequently, very different paths were drawn for
men and women, even in non-religious aspects of the medieval society.

Both genders received the same elementary education until
the end of feudal times (King 45). Moreover, very often classes were given in cathedrals,
but only a small number of them was open to girls (Kersev 190). This is an example
of how education and religion were two closely related concepts at the time.

The situation drastically changed with the opening of
the first universities in the 13th century. There, students were
taught with a Roman educational system and the activity they valued the most
was debating. As it was pointed out before, the submission of women in the
religious world had expanded also to the laic sphere of society. In fact, women
were excluded from the academic environment because perceived as inferior and
unsuitable for it (Bell 742). By not having access to the curriculum, an even
bigger gap was created between men and women. Nonetheless, this extremely
misogynistic treatment did not prevent many medieval women from getting an

Before getting onto the subject of female education, it
is important to mention that one’s
possibilities to study probably did not exclusively depend on gender, but also on
the social class one belonged to. In fact, both laymen and laywomen of the
lower classes rarely had the chance to get access to a higher education, both
religious and secular. 

Some girls were sent
to convents, where learning was a crucial aspect of the daily life (Kersev
188). The convent curriculum included different teachings that aimed at the
acquisition of both theoretical and practical skills. Not only did girls learn
how to sew and weave, but they were also taught in music, religion, manners and
morals and reading. It is clear that this type of learning was built around
Christian ethics and was offered to girls who in the future would have
eventually become nuns. As
we have seen in class, in some convents, nuns were extremely devoted to
knowledge. The Bridgettines, for example, who followed the morals of Bridget of
Sweden, were allowed more time to study than praying. They were even able to
cope well with the Latin language.

Wealthy families turned to tutors for the education of
their girls. A governess would very often come to the house to teach them social
manners and graces. In addition, a professor was hired to teach vernacular
reading and literature to the girls (Kersev 189). Another option for daughters
of noblemen was court school. Courts had always been a very stimulating
environment for cultural exchange and knowledge, therefore girls who had this
unique opportunity were probably the luckiest ones. For example, when Christine
de Pizan left Italy with her family and moved to the court of the French king
Charles the fifth, she received a very well structured philosophic and
scientific education (Gabriel 4).

It is clear that women of the upper classes had
various educational options to choose from and that despite having been
excluded from universities, they were far from being ignorant and they were skilled
in different activities.

Women’s relationship with books

Reading is an essential part of the learning process,
which requires a lot of practice in order to be mastered. Books have always
been considered the symbol of culture and knowledge, and in this chapter it
will be explored and analyzed the relationship medieval laywomen had with them.

At the time, private reading was not a very popular
activity. However, towards the 12th century, some changes in the
society favored its development. For example, the invention of the fireplace and
of more spaces for leisure in the upper classes started creating the idea of reading
as a thing that could be done privately at home (Bell 746). Moreover, the birth
of the print in the following centuries completely turned upside down the
conception of reading and expanded the opportunities of book ownership. Notwithstanding,
books were a luxury that only the upper classes could afford (Bell 747). As it
will be explained later on in the chapter, there were many women who read and
owned books.

First of all, it is worth mentioning that several of
them struggled in finding a private space where to read. According to the view
that prevailed at the time, women should not show any sign of intelligence
because that would confer them authority, which was a thing only related to
men. One might claim that this view signals how much men were afraid of the intellectual
capacities of women and therefore had to find some excuses to limit their
potential as much as possible. In order to do so, they created some withdrawal
rooms where they often isolated women so as to control them while they were
occupied (Green 80). As Green points out in his article, women had to embody
certain characteristics, such as chastity. These rooms should have been a way
for men to make sure that nothing happened while they were away. This atrocity
often turned out to be a good opportunity for the secluded women, since they
were able to immerse themselves in books in a private space where no one would
bother them.

The majority of books owned by medieval laywomen were
of devotional nature. The most read ones in the 12th century were
gospels, psalters and especially Books of Hours.

A Book of Hours was made of several types of prayers
which had to be read and recited at precise times and it included gatherings of
biblical material. Moreover, it could have many illustrations, both from the
Old and the New Testaments (Bell 753). One could argue that laywomen focused so
much on devotional literature because of their inferior position inside of the
church. Since they did not find themselves at ease with their situation, they
turned to private devotional reading as a way to escape the control of the

Furthermore, girls got used to reading devotional vernacular
works at a very young age. In fact, these were a source for primary education
and for the acquisition of the reading abilities (Bell 757), which means they
had familiarity with the genre.

The role of women in the rise of
the vernacular

Women’s strong relationship with non-Latin books made
them become ambassadors of cultural change during the late Middle Ages. At the
mid-point of the 12th century, the European linguistic environment
suffered a change which resulted in a gradual shift from Latin to the different
vernaculars as main languages of courts and societies (McCash 45). Women played
a pivotal role in the rise of the vernacular. Considering that not all of them
received convent education, just a little portion of the female population had
knowledge in Latin (McCash 51). The first translations of Latin works to the
vernacular were commissioned by a woman or by a community of women (Green 99).
For example, Matilda of Scotland, the first wife of Henry I of England, commissioned
the translation of Latin works into Anglo-Norman for her ladies and Maidens
(Bell 759).

Due to the fact that most laywomen were untutored in
the Latin language and since they were used to reading in the vernacular, on
might argue that this opportunity stimulated the pursuit of a change that would
eventually change the societal system. Therefore, it is clear that the purpose
was to make all types of literature accessible to a larger portion of the

In fact, as Dante mentions in his introduction to the Convivio, in which he slightly justifies
his choice of writing it in Italian and not in Latin, there were many people
that could benefit of this change, both women and men (McCash 52). Dante’s
words made me realize that if he mentions women in his discourse it means that many
of them desired to have access to cultural material. This strengthens the point
that the essay tried to prove in the first chapter. Not being proficient in
Latin did not entail ignorance or illiteracy as we intend it today.

As a consequence of this linguistic evolution, women’s
consideration of themselves changed and they bravely explored new genres,
benefiting of their talents. An example of a new way of writing in vernacular
is the autobiography. Margery Kempe, with the help of an amanuensis, wrote the
first autobiography of the English language, which is called The Book of Margery Kempe.

A change in the artistic
representation of womanhood

During the Middle Ages, women were encouraged to model
themselves on biblical heroines (Bell 752). The fact that women read and owned
books might have changed also the image and the perception people had of
womanhood. It can be observed by analyzing shifts in the artworks of the time. The
Virgin Mary was and still is considered to be the central female figure of the
Bible and therefore she represents a role model for every woman. Starting from
the 12th century, she began to be portrayed while reading a book
(Bell 761). This is a crucial detail that must not be ignored nor
underestimated, since it coincided with the increase in the number of women
engaged with reading and literature.

The image of the book in Christian art is a symbol for
the Word of God (Bell 762). Mary’s main characteristic had always been
chastity, but during the late Middle Ages she acquired a new essential trait,
wisdom. This phenomenon could be observed especially in paintings of the
Annunciation, when the archangel Gabriel came to Mary to tell her she was going
to give birth to the savior. Early illustrations of this scene show her with a
spindle in her hands, which was later replaced by a book (Sheingorn 69). She
was no longer characterized exclusively by her spiritual richness, but also by
her intellect.

After having taken this into account, one might wonder
which was the motive of such change. My thought is that the artistic symbolism
was important in terms of popularity, everyone at the time was in contact with
religious artworks and could have witnessed the modification. Mary was a model
for every woman and making her the embodiment of wisdom and knowledge
strengthened and gave importance to women who read and to their works. Moreover,
this new perspective on the Virgin Mary clearly echoes the reality which
inspired artists (Sheingorn 75), a reality where women read and owned books.

A further investigation of the religious iconography of
the 14th century England shows additional changes in relation to the
figure of the Virgin Mary and her educational path.

First of all, it is fundamental to mention that there
are some incongruences regarding the Marian process of education (Sheingorn 70).
 Sometimes she was portrayed as she was being
given class in a temple, and other times while being taught by Saint Anne, her
mother. Despite not being present in the canonical gospels, this scene/the
latter became extremely popular in late medieval art (Sheingorn 69).










Image 11

The image above represents the frontal part of an Opus Anglicanum altar of the 14th
century, which is now part of the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum
in London (Sheingorn 70). By looking at it, one may notice the presence of some
clear and basic details which confirm the act of teaching. First of all, the
open book suggests that the two of them are using it as an educational resource
and that they are reading it. In addition, Anne is pointing directly at it as
if she was explaining something to her daughter.

What might strike the most is that in earlier times
the figure of Anne seemed to have been inserted in the Scriptures exclusively
to complete Christ’s genealogical tree, since everything is focused on his
incarnation (Sheingorn 72). This suggests that the change was a meaningful one
and occurred for a reason. All of a sudden, saint Anne became a powerful role
model, responsible for the education of Mary. The image could be interpreted as
a way to encourage mothers to foster home education and to play an active role in
the instruction of their children.

That is precisely the message that Saint Jerome had tried
to convey in one of his letters dated of the 4th century. He claimed
that it was one of women’s duties to be involved in their children’s moral and
intellectual upbringing by saying that “instead of jewels or silk let
daughters love the manuscripts of the Holy Scriptures, and in them let them
prefer correctness …”2 (Bell 755). It also proves
that the relationship between mothers and daughters, especially at the time of
learning, had always been an important issue for some.

Christine de Pizan and her progressive
view on women’s role in education

Christine de Pizan is considered one the most active
figures in the defense of women’s rights during the Middle Ages. Born in Italy
in 1364, Christine moved to France at a young age. The whole family went to
live at the court of Charles the fifth. There, as aforementioned, she received
a very remarkable education, both philosophical and scientific. She was widowed
at the age of twenty-five, because her husband, Etienne de Castel, died of an
epidemic disease (Gabriel 5). Christine was therefore left alone with her three

She did not tolerate the submissiveness that women of
her time had to deal with and throughout her life she was always determined to
make the difference and eventually found the strength to raise her voice
against gender discrimination. Her opinion on the subject is very valuable for
the development of this essay, since, among her many contributions in favor of
gender equality, she focused on women’s education and on the importance of the
relationship between mothers and daughters.

These are the central topics of her Book of the Three Virtues, a complete
source on feminine education, in which she addresses to women of every social
layer (Gabriel 11). It is crucial to mention that she had a complicated
relationship with her mother, who believed that a domestic instruction was
everything that a girl needed in order to fulfill her duties (Gabriel 13). One
might argue that it was precisely her life experience what pushed her to write
the book. Despite having received a thorough education at court, Christine
might have realized that if it had not been for that, her mother would not have
taught her nothing more than sewing and weaving.

Christine believed that the purpose of female
education had to be the acquisition of knowledge in relation to morals,
something that only women could do. She claimed that knowledge on itself is
useless and that women had to be wise, not learned (Gabriel 13). This might be
interpreted as a criticism to male forms of education, which were entirely
focused on knowledge acquisition.

Moral education could be exactly what made mothers
suitable figures for the education of their children. Preparing them to enter
healthily and readily in society is a fundamental task which requires hard
work, time and especially patience.

In The Book of
the Three Virtues Christine pushes women to be serious and tough educators
and to avoid trifles and frivolousness (Lorcin 42). One might desagree in
relation to her point of view. Here, maybe unconsciously influenced by the
general view of the time, she is encouraging women to be less womanly and to
imitate a manly behavior. She sees women’s emotiveness and natural tendency to
empathy as a flaw, which could be instead used as an advantage. Educators, in
order to reach their goals, need to be on the same wavelength of their students
and this can only be done through the creation of a human bond between the two

Finally, Christine the Pizan also lingered on the
importance for young girls to learn how to handle devotional books. She says,
addressing mothers: “When her daughter is of the age of learning to read …
one should bring her books of devotion and contemplation and those speaking of
morality”3 (Bell 756). As it was
explained in the first chapters, these types of books were largely used for
educational purposes. Therefore, they could pass from one generation of women
to another, preserving the great contact with books of the time.



This essay has
touched upon many different topics, some of which could not immediately seem
related to one another. Nevertheless, they all contribute to the demonstration
of women’s important role in the cultural environment of the Middle Ages and in
the education of their children. Despite not having access to universities,
women, especially from the upper classes, often had the chance to get an
education. Moreover, laywomen read a lot and owned many books. The inferior
status they were secluded to pushed them to make a change and make literature
more accessible, by becoming agents of the linguistic shift which interested
the European continent during the late Middle Ages. This change was also
portrayed in the religious artworks of the time, where female figures acquired
intellectual and wise connotations that did not have before. Furthermore, the
essay insisted on the role of mothers in the upbringing of their children
through the example of Christine de Pizan and her educational works. In
conclusion, it would be wrong to claim that in the Middle Ages women were not
considered as inferior and that they did not lead their lives in a society
completely dominated by men. Nevertheless, in various occasions they took their
submission and turned it into a strength, through which they managed to have an
impact on their reality and to be influential in their own way. Women’s ignorance
is therefore a complete misconception that does not have to be fomented in the
study of the cultural environment of the Middle Ages.

1 Source
for the image: Sheingorn, Pamela.
“‘The Wise Mother’: The Image of St. Anne Teaching the Virgin Mary.” Gesta, vol. 32, no. 1, 1993, p. 70

2 Saint
Jerome, Selected Letters, Loeb
Classical Library (London: Putnam & Co., 1933), pp. 343-65

3 Christine de Pizan, Le
Tresor de la Cite des Dames (Paris: Janot, 1536), fol. xxxiv. This book is
sometimes known as Le Livre des Trois