Introduction: responsibility of interns/students’ progress in addition to

Introduction:

Teaching and learning in the
clinical environment is more than demonstration of skills and knowledge.  Teaching skills to respiratory care students,
bedside teaching is an effective tool that includes the direct demonstration,
observation and timely feedback. (Jones, 2004). 
Where respiratory preceptors take responsibility of interns/students’
progress in addition to managing patient care.

Very few researches have been
done on the issue in Saudi Arabia. This is the first study that is conducted at
King Fahd Hospital to determine the level of satisfaction of students and
interns with clinical teaching respiratory program and also to compare the
satisfaction of two groups with their internship and clinical rotation
experience. 

Clinical teaching is teaching and
learning focused on, and usually directly involving, patients and their
problems. (Spencer, 2003). The skills and
techniques that students develop during their clinical education are heavily contingent
on their interactions with the faculty who serve as their coaches, mentors, and
evaluators.  (Henzi, Davis, Jasinevicius, & al, 2006). Teaching strategies consistent with effective supervision
and mentoring include communicating clear expectations for students’ behavior
and performance, providing practical and helpful “just in time” teaching
(commonly known as prompting), explaining concepts and techniques clearly at
the students’ level and then confirming their understanding, providing “how to”
feedback in a no belittling manner, and understanding students’ learning needs
at different levels of training and adjusting teaching accordingly.  (Henzi, Davis,
Jasinevicius, & al, 2006).  

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Teaching in clinical settings is
challenging and depends on personal experience in respiratory care as well as
other health care professions. There are rules and principles that control and
regulate the duties of the teacher, the students and the way the learning and
teaching is conducted. One of the studies done to identify the discrepancies
existed between the clinical teaching behaviors and the frequency with which
those behaviors were practiced in the clinical setting. List of behaviors
related to clinical teaching were provided to preceptors and students. “Both the groups were agreed on the
importance of the items with regard to the frequency with which effective
clinical teaching behaviors were practiced.” (Dunlevy & Wolf, 1992).

Another study reported that this
form of communication between the preceptors and the trainees needs appropriate
settings and require certain skills. This process requires enthusiasm and
commitment on the part of both preceptor and learner. (Kelly, 2010; Daugherty, 1998). Another study done by Mishoe &
Hernlen (2005) mentioned the importnace of critical thinking in respiratory
care and pointed out the that it can be enhanced through awareness and
education which may improve the skills including prioritising, communicating,
decision making and reflecting and learning process like evaluation, judgement,
motivation and life long learning of the student. They pointed out that it may
be acieved through Problem Based Learning (PBL) techniques.  

The use of PBL is very new in the
field of respiratory care. In respiratory care it is used with the purpose to
produce a graduate with improved critical thinking and life-long learning
skills. In respiratory care PBL uses cases to provide a stimulus for the
specification of learning issues, or objectives, which the students research
and discuss. One of the studies on PBL and case based learning in respiratory
care education has shown that students enjoyed the process of PBL and they
opined that they performed clinically better than non-PBL fellows (Op’t Holt,
2005).

There are certain approaches to
bedside teaching which make it effective, satisfying and enjoyable. Few of them
are the teacher knowledge, attitudes and skills, the learner’s experiences and
knowledge and the external factors which enhance or hinder the
teaching-learning process (Rusell, 2007)

There has been a growing interest
in the use of volunteer clinical preceptors to
provide clinical instruction to respiratory therapy (RT) students. However, many RT
preceptors have had little or no training in preceptorship. We sought to
identify the preceptor training needs of programs to improve the quality of
preceptor ship and assure that RT programs prepare graduates for 21st-century
RT practice (Rye & Boone, 2009). Respiratory preceptors take responsibility
of interns and students’ progress in addition to managing patient care. Usually
they are role models for respiratory therapy students. Some preceptors may be
under prepared and lack teaching skills. In some cases preceptors are
uncomfortable with student evaluation (Cullen,
2005). Performance assessment should have
stability and consistency, measure what is intended to be measured, and truly
determine competence.

Understanding respiratory care faculty and students’
perceptions of clinical instructor’s effectiveness and clinical learning
environments is imperative as RT is a unique profession with specific demands,
barriers and needs that might impact this relationship differently. Thus,
further addressing this line of inquiry in RT will provide respiratory care
educational leaders with valuable information regarding the quality of CEEs.
This information will form a ground toward clinical education improvement in
respiratory care profession. Primary purpose of this study was to identify the
perceptions of respiratory care faculty and students regarding the
characteristics of effective clinical instructors.