IntroductionTheurge for development both intellectually and commercially has spurned man togreater pedestal not only for survival on the planet but also to extremes ofbeing a dominant species. Pollard’s chapter 8 of Worlds together worlds apartdemonstrates how clans, groups and tribes in both Roman and Han Empires between300 and 600 CE thrived on premise of spirituality across Afro-Eurasianterritory. The same chapter clarifies that spiritual advancement was moldedwithin imperial customs both benefitting; from morality and integration ofdispersed communities. Religion fostered morality of the society by reconcilingbrethren through guidance from religious leaders whom gave answers when war andpessimism to understand the unknown arose, thus religion and religious leaderscould both integrated and broadly scatter societies as well. Rome’s stumbling leadership gave in to invasions by barbarianscausing the people to look to the Christianity faith for provision of order, anevent that led to the papacy rising as a ruler.
Martyrs witnessed to thebelievers who looked to them as their connection to the gods-omnipresentfigures whom man pleased with loving deeds- martyrs shed blood for by obeyingscriptural laws conflicting the Roman laws thus punishment. I believe the sameoptimism had Constantine place a Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields on abattle that made him emperor. Unlikeformer emperors before him, he treated Christianity best by granting bishopsprivileges they exploited and used as stepping stone to universalizeChristianity. In addition, he convened all bishops to the council where theyestablished a creed that ended the wildly debated contradictions about conductof Christian believers. His monumental legacy of conversion of the entire RomanEmpire to Christianity is furthered by his successor Justinian. Who afterachieving what he sought most-outdoing all previous Roman Emperors by reformingRoman Laws to the “Roman Law”- honored dearly the cohesion of Christianity andimperial culture by building a church of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinoplewhose columns and size portrayed this relationship.Intellectual andcommercial prowess of China controlling the Silk Road rendered it porous topopulations and cultures of its far western terrain-Buddhism. Buddhismtransformed Chinese Empire after spreading along the Silk Road from India toChina via Central Asia because of booming business.
In as much as the Vedicreligion (Brahmanism) which united people of South Asia explained all problemsof theology it did not claim universal faith until its transformation thatproduced Hinduism. Even after adopting Buddhism and Jainist practices of associatingwith agricultural societies as opposed to prior pastoral past of animal ritualsacrifices, Hinduism still maintained a monotheistic perspective. Since people lackedimperial systems they developed dependence on religious and social institutions(e.g. castes and guilds) to maintain civic order a reason why Buddhism andJainism gained populace in cities and commercial places