The government of India’s the main objective is to over all development of Rural sections. For this thing it introduces the Five Years plans though the Planning Commission. At present in the central Government as introduces the Nithi Ayog to do the this dutes in the nation. Keeping this in view, Panchayath Raj Institutions have been introduced under the 73rd Amendment Act of the Constitution of India in 1992. Rural Development includes measures to strengthen the democratic structure of society through the Panchayath Raj Institutions. It also includes measures to improve the livelihood and rural infrastructure, improve income of rural households and delivery systems pertaining to education, health & safety mechanisms. The Government of Karnataka has taken many steps to development of rural areas and panchayaths in the state. The Panchayats are expected to play an important role in rural development in Karnataka, particularly after independence. Five years Plan documents of both the central and state governments and various committees have emphasized the importance of these bodies in the polity. Five-year plans, specially the second five-year plan, laid special emphasis on the role of Panchayats in rural developments.
The Panchayats are expected to play an important role in rural development in India, particularly after independence (Kadam 2012, 15; Thanikasalam and Saraswathy 2014, 49). In the Indian context rural development assumes greater significance as 72.22 per cent (2001 census) of its population still live in rural areas (Chauhan 2014, 4). Plan documents of both the central and state governments and various committees have emphasized the importance of these bodies in the polity. Second five year plan envisaged a panchayath as responsible for village development keeping transformation of social and economic life of rural areas as its goal of development. It says that, the rural progress depends entirely on the existence of an active organization in the village which can bring all the people, including the weaker sections, in to common programmes to be carried out with the assistance of administration. To achieve this objective the second Five year Plan entailed the Panchayaths to perform civic, developmental, land management, land reform and judicial functions. Subsequent plans and policy pronouncements of national leader to emphasized the role of Panchayaths in village development.
The role of Panchayath Raj institutions as instruments of rural reconstruction and development needs no emphasis. They have been reorganized with wider powers and financial resources not merely as institutions of political participation but institutions of social and economic development. Panchayath Raj has come to be associated with two broad images. First, it is a government by itself and second it is an agency of the state government. In the integrated exercise of planning for social and economic development, co-ordinate roles, the present set up is a three-tier representative structure of the government where the administrators, elected leaders and local population participate in the developmental effort. In fact the elected representatives play the key role in the decision making process, leaders are regarded as facilities of the process of development. Since the emphasis of rural development policies is bringing about people’s participation in the development programmes, it is possible to achieve this through the leaders. The administrators are accepted to participate with missionary zeal in the life and development of the villages and these institutions are to be galvanized to become effective instruments of social and economic change.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
This study based on reviews the available literature relating to the Panchayat Raj Institutions and Rural Development. The main purpose of this review is to give a proper orientation and perspective to the present work. The literature available on Panchayath Raj relating to various aspects of rural development is quite extensive. After independence, Panchayath Raj institutions have been playing a significant role to facilitate people’s participation and involvement in the attainment of development in the living conditions of the people within the socio-economic and political context of an area. Panchayath Raj as a historical and revolutionary step in the area of participatory democracy for development administration has always attracted the attention of scholars both in India and abroad, academicians, political leaders, bureaucrats and researchers. Their contribution has come to light in the form of books, seminars, committee reports, conference reports, research works, papers and articles published in Newspapers.
Nandedkar (1979) attempted to study development and democracy as the two purposes of Panchayath Raj institutions. He states that democracy is associating people with the process of decision-making. Participation of the people in the lower units of administration through Panchayath Raj institutions is the sine qua non of the success of rural development programmes. The act had been hailed in the press as “revolutionary in concept and wide in its sweep” (Chandrashekar, 1984). The question uppermost in the minds of all was whether people in the villages of Karnataka were ready to fully utilize the radical provisions of the new act. Many had expressed apprehension as to whether the act would remain only on paper or whether it would be implemented with the people’s participation. Spokesmen from Karnataka were confident that it would work well in the given context of the state and they cited several example of people’s enthusiasm and excitement over this act. Minister Abdul Nazir Sab even proclaimed that one of the reasons for the victory of his party in the 1985 elections was this act and the people’s expectations from it.
Bava (1985) studied active participation of citizens in public life like providing particular service or in governance which is a prime requisite for the success of democracy. It is stated by him that people’s participation also acts as the bulwark of the rights of the people and guardian of public interest and national interest and it lessens the evils of bureaucratism, status and totalitarianism. If citizen participation is the means of attaining goals of development including democracy and building of the nation, decentralization in political, administrative, economic and financial areas and functions is the instrument of generating and channelizing people’s involvement and cooperation for democratic governance and decentralized development. There is a triangular leadership between decentralization democracy and development. Bava conducted an empirical study on decentralization, democracy and development in Tamil Nadu. Institutions of local self-government like Panchayath Raj institutions signify decentralization (democratization) of political power, i.e. devolution of power, responsibility and resources to people’s representatives at the lower levels of government. For such institutions of local self-government make popular participation in decision-making both effective and informed. Further, it is only when people have control over decisions and their execution that Government and administration can become responsible and responsive to people’s needs and aspirations.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLGY:
In this paper is made an attempt has been made specific objectives,
v To understanding the importance of Rural Development and Panchayath Raj Institution
v To examine the role of Rural Development and Panchayath Raj department eradicating Poverty in Karnataka.
The paper has been analyzed in descriptive nature, based on available literature collected from journals, books, newspaper, and website so on.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND PANCHAYATH RAJ INSTITUTION:
The Government of Karnataka though the Karnataka Panchayath Raj Act-1993 it implementing the local governance in rural areas of the state. The aims of the act are to achieve democratic decentralization especially for the rural areas. In Karnataka fallows the three tier structural constitution. It has elected bodies at each level. Panchayath Raj constitutes like a The Gram Panchayath at the village level, The Taluk Panchayaths at the sub-district (taluk) level, The Zilla Panchayaths at the district level. Through this three tiers The Rural Development and Panchayath Raj institution implanting the somany schemes and projects like such as, Chief Minister grama Vikasa, Gram Swaraj Project, Suvarna gramodhaya, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, National Rural Livelihood Mission, Rajeev Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikaran Abhiyan, etc.
The Rural Development and Panchayath raj institutions having the some important objectives, they are as follows,
Ø To alleviate poverty through Self –Employment Programmes.
Ø To strengthen the livelihood of the rural households by providing 100 days of
Ø Guaranteed wage employment every year.
Ø To provide safe and adequate drinking water to all the rural habitations.
Ø To empower the Panchayath Raj Institutions.
Ø To improve the capacity of the elected representatives and the executives of the Panchayath Raj Institutions
Ø To improve the quality of service delivery of the Grama Panchayaths in the priorities of the local areas and effective management of public resources.
Ø To develop vibrant village communities with an in depth and sustainable knowledge of integrated rural development.
Ø To create awareness about rural energy and to disseminate the innovative technology.
Ø To ensure integrated development of western ghat region.
Ø To remove barriers in the development of basic amenities.
Ø To improve rural sanitation.
Ø To ensure transparency in administration.
Role of the Department in eradicating the Poverty in Karnataka: The Rural Development and Panchayath raj Department has initiated to implemented several schemes and projects in the state for the eradicating the poverty. Here researcher focused the schemes and projects, are related to describe the eradicating of poverty in Karnataka. they are as follows,
Gram Swaraj Project: This project was assisted by the World Bank in the year 2006-07. The objective of project was to fill the administrative and developmental gaps in the selected Grama panchayaths designed with best possible scope for efficiency and effectiveness. First it required to increase the resources for development in these backward Grama Panchayaths by providing untied grants. Along with this, it also sought additional efforts on the part of GP functionaries in generation of own source revenue and thereby increasing their capacity to undertake higher investment.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Project was started by the Central Government in the year of 2005-06. The objective of MGNREGS is to improve livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year. And also every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Through this scheme majority of the states are achieved the generating productive assets, protecting the environment, empowering rural women, reducing rural-urban migration and poverty in rural areas etc
Suvarna Gramodaya Yojane : It is a new programme of the Government of Karnataka in developing vibrant village communities by adopting an intensive and in targeted approach to rural development. This programme is launched on the occasion of Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the formation of the State of Karnataka. With the joint efforts of the Government, Non Governmental Organizations and the village communities, selected villages are being developed phase by phase. His Excellency, The President of India has launched the Suvarna Gramodaya Yojane on 25.02.2007, which is a state sector scheme. Objectives of the scheme is to upgrade the physical environment of the selected villages for improving the quality of life. And to provide full and adequate infrastructure for human resources development including education, health services, child care facilities etc.
Grama Vikasa Scheme : The Grama Vikasa Scheme is to be comprehensive development of the villages, In the year of 2014-15 the government of Karnataka started scheme in 189 Rural Assembly Constituencies of the State. For this Grama Vikasa Scheme invested the 750 Corers, 3 years scheme was implemented to achieve all round development of 5 villages including 2 villages in the limits of every Assembly Constituency where SC/ST population is more. Guidelines are also being released for effective implementation of the scheme.
The Rural development and Panchayath raj plays a vital role in the country development among the developing countries like India. For the development, developing countries are implemented so many programmes in especially in rural areas. It helps to creation of a number of jobs and opportunities in rural areas thought out In India. After the 1949 Panchayath Raj Institutions commenced functioning as Democratic decentralization of country. The Government on India Act, 1935, Malaviya Committee (1956), Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (1957), Ashok Mehta Committee (1978), Hanumantha Rao Committee (1983), G. V. K. Rao Committee (1985), Singhvi Committee (1986), etc. have been dealt with the development, functioning, autonomy and freedom, weaknesses, and remedial measures for strengthening of the Panchayath Raj system. The Panchayath Raj had drawn the attention towards the programme implementing authorities in rural areas of the country. The implementation of rural development programmes through the Panchayath Raj department has brought a radical change in the socioeconomic conditions of the rural people in the village level. The implementation of rural development programmes has affected even the social and political affairs of the people. In the economic sphere, these programmes have shaped an improvement in economic position of the village. As a result, most of the villagers have acquired an added income. From this paper we can highlighted that though the Rural Development and Panchayath Raj Department of Karnataka providing a good projects and schemes to eradicating the poverty in the state.