INTRODUCTION in different communities in India, the North

INTRODUCTION

Man, the superior of all the
species is always remaining in search of one prime goal, ‘The perfect health’.
From Vedic era to space age, all the researches have been directed by the
eminent scholars to achieve the same. Ancient Acharya’s and their counterparts
in this era tried and still trying their best to beep the man young and virile.
Veda’s the source of divine knowledge, who has been enlighten the path of
complete solace since ages.

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Ayurveda, one of the best and
traditional health care systems of Indian origin, attempts to focus on holistic
health management, both prevention and curing of ailments1. It is more suited to Indian
human psychology than modern health care system.

Cholelithiasis (gall bladder stone) is a
crystalline concretion formed within the gall bladder by accretion of bile
components.2
Cholelithiasis is one of the prevalent and expensive gasteroenterological
disease. It belongs to the group of complex metabolic disorder that affect
human , and its critical pathogenic mechanism are not well defined. The
prevalence of cholesterol cholelithiasis in Western countries is about 10-20%
and every year 1-3% of people develop gall stones3.
An epidemiological study shows that in India prevalence of cholelithiasis is
about 4%. It is rare in first two decades. Incidence gradually increases after
20 years. It reaches peak in 5th and 6th decades.Gall bladder stones varies
widely in different communities in India, the North Indians having 2-4 fold
higher prevalence as compared with those amoung South Indians4.
Women  are affected more than men, and
the ratio is 4:1. It is said that the gallstons 
are more in  fat, fertile, forty
and female5.

Actual mechanism of cholelithiasis gets attention
from the research workers. Factors for production of gallstones are multiple,
complex, interrelated and not always single, direct, or simple. The drugs to
dissolve gall stones or other non surgical methods are still considered
experimental in modern medicine. Cholesterol gall stones can sometimes be
dissolved by oral Ursodeoxycholic acid, but it may be required that the patient
takes this medication for 2 years. Gall stones may reoccur however once the
drug is stopped.

By over all view it is very much clear that treatment 
prescribed in modern medicine for Cholelithiasis is far from
satisfactory and is often accompanied with several side effects. Their
is no evidence of pittasaya ashmari in the ancient Ayurvedic treaties. It is clearly mentioned in
Ayurveda that putting of accurate nomenclature of a disease is not always
possible and that can be assessed, diagnosed or managed by wise physician
considering the Dosha, Dhatu, and mala theories. The disease which had not been
mentioned in Ayurvedic classics are opined by the scholar how to manage them.

In this circumstance, to develope a new potent,
chief ,innocent drug of plant origin will be summum bonum for the suffering
humanity in this world. So there is
large scope in Ayurveda in the field of management of Cholelithiasis. Everyone has to possess a new drug formulation
for the natural diseases in a natural process in order to find a new drug with
its authentication to prove that the drug possess on that particular organ without
affecting the other organs.

Acharya Sushruta very
specifically indicates Paneeya Kshara in the management of Ashmari and the
Kshara due to its ksharana property can easily dissolve Ashmari.7

By keeping all the facts
in the mind the study entitiled “Clinical And
Experimental Evaluation Of Paneeya Kshara In The Management Of Cholelithiasis
W.S.R To Pittasaya Ashmari was selected. The drug which possess diuresis,
antihyper-lipidemic as well as anti-inflammatory Properties was kept in the
thought process of the disease and a drug “Makkaya” was selected.