InternationalRelations and Strategies Anubhav Joshi3298TY E15020621059 India’s current Geopolitical relation with China INDEX Serial Number Topic Page number 1 Issues motivated for choosing the study 2 Origin and Nature 3 Literature Review 4 Current Situation 5 Lessons Learned 6 Recommendations for the future Issuesmotivated for choosing the studyIndia andChina have been deemed as among the fastest growing nations in the world .
Bothof these countries have seen growth which no other country has seen in recenttimes. However, where there is duopoly there is bound to be competition . Notjust competition, there has also been instances when India and China have beenenemies and fought battles. However there have been occasions when both ofthese countries have helped each other out . To conclude one can say that theIndo-China relationship is somewhat bitter sweet . This unique dynamism andvolatility of this relationship urged me to take up this subject .
Also, the factthat in coming times, India and China will be the hubs for business on theglobe . This prediction of them being the future of business has instigated meto dwell further into the topic as it may come handy for me in the future.Another reason for choosing Indo-Chinese relationship is its constantreiteration in the Indian mediafor various tensions on the line of ActualControl . Thus, these reasons justify why I have chosen to study thecomplicated Indo-China relationship. Origin andNatureThe originof the Sino-Indian relationship dates back to the time of the Silk Route whichhighly pushed the trade relations to kick off between the two countries. Thesilk route was also a main cause for the spread of Buddhism in the twocountries.
China’s opium trade with the east India company was famous but alsotroublesome as it led to the first and the second opium wars.The natureof the relationship as mentioned above is highly competitive. The competitivenature can be contributed for the fact that they are among the oldestcivilizations of the world and are usually pitted against one another. Also,there humongous size and population give them a sense of similarity. Since boththe countries are second world countries and have this urge to develop , theyare often conflicted in their opinions.
These conflicts have led to militaryaction on three occasions namely in 1962, 1967 and 1987 . There also have beenregular breach of the Line of Actual Control from both the sides leading toskirmishes and political tension between the two countries.LiteratureReviewTitle- India and China : conflict andcooperationDate-March, 2010Author- David M Malone and Rohan MukherjeeWebsite-https://scholar-qa.princeton.edu/sites/default/files/Survival%2052-1%2012%20Malone%20and%20Mukherjee Not much has changed in the rhetoric ofSino-Indian relations since Mao Zedong, speaking in 1951 in honour of the firstanniversary of India’s constitution, declared that ‘excellent friendship’ hadexisted between the two countries ‘for thousands of years’.1 Yet few of thelofty proclamations made by Indian and Chinese leaders over the years trulyreflect the reality of relations between the neighbours.
It is surprising thattwo states with such a rich and sometimes fractious history, including a borderconflict in 1962, should have what appears to be a largely reactiverelationship. But neither has developed a grand strategy with regard to theother. An unshakeable and largely unprofitable preoccupation with the past onthe Indian side, and an equally intense preoccupation with domesticconsolidation on the Chinese side, have left the relationship under-tended. Itmight best be seen as one of geostrategic competition qualified by growingcommercial cooperation. And there is some asymmetry: China is a more fraughtsubject in Indian national debates than India is for China. China does notappear to feel threatened in any serious way by India, while India at timesdisplays tremendous insecurity in the face of Chinese economic success andmilitary expansion. Title- Cooperationwithout Trust- Indo- Chinese relationship todayDate- Nov 30, 2013Author- AR NalpathamkalamWebsite-http://in.
boell.org/sites/default/files/downloads/India-China_Relations_-_Abhilash_10.10.pdf The first of them takes a “realist” point ofview, arguing that each of the two emerging powers would fight for dominance inthe Asian continent. It tends to describe relations between the two countriesas hostile. This could even lead to military confrontation between the twonations, or at least to an even greater militarization of the region (Roy 2011,Banyan 2012, The Economist 2012).
War is only contained because both countrieshave nuclear weapons and are increasing and modernizing their capabilities inconventional warfare. India belongs to the group of major importers of militarytechnology. The second school of thought takes a liberal perspective, viewingChina and India as two major emerging markets in a more and more interdependentworld, where trade and commerce sustain peaceful coexistence. Observing theIndian media it seems that the “China threat” theory dominates in most newsbroadcasts (Banyan 2012). Title- Sino Indian Relations : ComplexChallenges in a Complex RelationDate- 22 june,2012Author- Johan SvenssonWebsite- http://www.
diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:543006/FULLTEXT01.pdf China and India, demographicallybeing the two largest countries in the world, are together accounting for morethan a third of the world’s total population. This makes the Sino-Indianrelationship critical not only for those living in China and India, but for thewhole world. Regardless of a history filled with conflicts and a contemporarycompetition over regional influence have the two Asian powers managed toincreasingly deepen their economic ties. Even though the relationship seems tobe moving in a more peaceful direction of mutual understanding and cooperation,it is still a very fragile relationship. The focus of this research lies in thecontemporary Sino-Indian relations, which aims to understand the role trade andcooperation have had in moving the attention away from security-related issueson to more positive fields. The empirical observations that will be tested inthe case of Sino-Indian relations are the border dispute at Arunachal Pradeshand the political and economic interdependence.
Together these will representthe empirical foundation of the research, which will be tested and interpretedby the neo-realist and neo-liberal perspective. The concluding remarks on theresearch is that trade and cooperation unlikely is the main factor in theSino-Indian relationship, preventing or reducing attention from being given tosecurityrelated issues, but should rather be seen as the foundational source onwhich a process towards confidence-building measures, institutions, mutualinterests and goodwill has been established. Title – Future of India – China relations:challenges and prospectsDate- June,2010Author- A KumarWebsite- file:///C:/Users/ss/Downloads/28096-28115-1-PB.PDFThe ongoing debate on India-Chinarelations among the members of strategic and academic community has raised a numberof issues including the future prospects and the major challenges confrontingthe bilateral relationships. The last six decades of India-China relationshipshave seen more of mutual mistrust and suspicion than friendliness and cordialatmosphere. Such mutual mistrust and suspicion grew over the years and havegone beyond proportions in the current context. The challenge has always beento bridge the differences of opinion from both sides and reach to a commonunderstanding on a number of sensitive issues including Sino-Indian borderissues.
At the same time, one should not come to the conclusion that both Indiaand China have always been at loggerheads. A series of serious attempts havebeen made by both India and China to bridge the differences more particularlyon the border issue. India and China relations are expanding and deepeningdespite several divergences on many pertinent issues impacting the bilateralrelations. The deepening of relations was reflected when the two countriesestablished the Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperityin 2005 and also signed A Shared Vision for 21st Century in 2008.
Undoubtedly,India and China have emerged as the two rapidly growing economies and theirbilateral relationship to a greater extent has assumed global and strategicrelevance. It would be important to introspect India – China experience in thepast and then explore the mechanisms by which the bilateral cooperation cantake a robust shape. The objective of this paper will be to assess and analyzethe broad contours of India-China relations and explore the areas on which boththe countries can work together on mutual interests.
The trajectory ofbilateral relationship has many positive as well as negative connotations. Itwould highlight both the convergences and divergences and then suggest ways bywhich the existing divergences can be bridged. It would also try and explainthe rationale for a robust and constructive engagement.
Title-China – India: An analysis of the Himalayan territorial disputeDate-February,2015Author- Katherine RichardsWebsite-http://www.defence.gov.au/ADC/Publications/IndoPac/Richards%20final%20IPSD%20paper.pdf This paper examines the disputebetween China and India over their shared Himalayan border. It assesses thatthe likelihood of a major Sino-Indian conflict over the border is remote,notwithstanding the ever-present possibility of limited skirmishes andterritorial forays.
It argues that there are significant constraining factorsthat will limit military assertiveness and the effects of miscalculation byeither side for the foreseeable future. The paper concludes that the currentstrategic stalemate along the ‘roof of the world’ will continue to result in arelatively stable but tense security status quo. However, it also notes that anongoing, seemingly intractable dispute between the two most populated countriesin the world is not conducive to longer-term regional stabilityCurrent SituationThe current situation between the two countries can be describedas somewhat problematic .
With no shades of exactly black and exactly white,one may conclude that the relationship between the two countries is somewherein the grey region. With a huge trade imbalance between the two countries andgreat infrastructure and ammunition around the border , there is tensionbetween the governments in Beijing and New Delhi. There is also the intensecompetition between the two economies to capture the global environment whichonly makes the situation worse and hostile.Lessons LearnedAmong themany other lessons leaarned the jist and the most important one which cameacross to me was that it is very important for India and China toget along. Itis very important for them to be at peace with each other in order to prosperand grow accordingly .
A tiff between these two countries might not just putworld peace in a perilious state but may also hamper world economic growth anddevelopment . Thus, the diplomatic relationship between the two countries is amajor tie to be maintained for the entire world.Recommendationsfor the FutureThe onlylogical way forward according to me is that of peace . The governments shouldsort out matters like Myanmar, Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh and move towardsintegration.
Efforts should also be made to start cuturals programs between thetwo countries. Efforts should also be made to sort out the trade imbalance betweenthe two countries.Referenceswww.google.comwww.wikipedia.com