In duration of the Introduction to data communications

this reflection paper I will discuss three major concepts that were covered in
the duration of the Introduction to data communications course. The three major
concepts I chose to discuss include the Open System Interconnection model (OSI),
Network topologies, and Division Multiplexing.


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Open System Interconnection Model is a seven-layer framework that lays out and
describes the different functions of a networking system. Breaking the complete
system down in layers helps give a visual description of the operations of the
networking system. This breakdown allows the user to narrow down potential
issues with either hardware or software.

7 is the application layer, this layer is responsible for transferring files
within a network and stores protocols such as http files. The 6th
layer is the presentation layer, this layer is responsible for the data representation
on the main screen. The 5th layer is the session layer, this layer
establishes session connections and disconnection between users. The 4th
layer is the transport layer. This layer is responsible for data transfer
between systems as well as error recovery. Layer 3 is the network layer, this
layer controls the transfer data from routers through a network, the router
works on this layer. Layer 2 is the data link layer, this layer turns data it
receives into a frame as well as turning electrical signals into bits, the
switch works on this layer. The first layer is the physical layer this is all the
hardware such as cables and repeaters. This layer is responsible for radio, light
and electrical signals.

            The OSI
model in the past has helped users and vendors understand the relationship and interworking’s
of each layer within the framework that will allow the timely identification of
an issue that can affect a networks normal operations. While the OSI model
explains generically how a network works more users are currently and in the foreseeable
future using the TCP/IP model as it explains specifically how the TCP/IP
protocol operates and is implemented on most networked hardware.

            As I make
a career change and pursue a greater education within the i.t. field, I hope to
gain a more in depth understanding of the networking systems. In my current
line of work this type of technology doesn’t affect any aspect of my job so
this wouldn’t apply to my current employment.


topology is defined as the arrangement of different elements such as nodes and
links of a computer network. It is the graphical structure of a network. It can
either be depicted logically or physically. The arrangement of the different
elements of a network is defined as physical topology and it includes cable
installation and device location. Logical topology shows the flow of data
within a network regardless of the physical design. Between two networks, there
might be distances between signal types, transmission rates, physical
connection, and nodes.