In this paper, the aspects of a developmental study will be reviewed. This includes physical, cognitive, social, and moral standpoints of a 4-year-old child. Around this time, most children are learning how to follow someone, play with friends. They are also developing concepts of purpose, initiative, and courage. Lastly, they are beginning to form relationships with their family members, which adds onto their close bonds with their parents.
Generally, psychologist studying this stage of human development major in education, early childhood education, developmental psychology or social work. Conception, also known as impregnation and fertilization, is the very beginning of human development. Conception occurs when the sperm cell fuses with the egg cell. This period in humans begins at fertilization, and continues until the end of the tenth week of pregnancy. The end of the embryonic stage is marked by the full development of all major structures within the embryo. After ten weeks, it is considered the fetal stage. During this time, the major structures continue to grow. One of the biggest milestones during this time is the ability to detect a heartbeat with ultrasound.
It is noticeable around 10-12 weeks. From there, organs mature, the lungs begin to start functioning, and internal organs become organized within the fetal body. The fetus will continue to grow up until birth. During the first month of its life, a baby is considered a newborn. More often than not, the baby will be sleeping a lot.
Despite this, massive changes are occurring within the baby. These include three specific areas of development: physical, mental, and emotional. They will have their basic reflexes such as grabbing and turning a cheek to suckle.
Emotional habits include crying to grab their parents’ attention. Lastly, they soon start to grasp what is around them. Past the infancy stage, you move into adolescence. Adolescence is usually determined as being between age 12 and 18.
Adolescence is the phase of human development that starts at puberty and ends at the beginning of adulthood. Puberty involves many physical changes in a person’s height, weight, and other bodily functions. These changes are largely influenced by the release of hormones. During this time secondary sexual characteristics such as pubic hair, muscle growth, deepening of voice in males, and enlargement of breasts in females occurs. For some this period of enhanced growth is a time for embarrassment while others own it. Lastly is the change from a regular man, to an old man. Adulthood is essentially from the end of adolescents to death. During this time many psychological and physiological changes occur.
Some bodily functions begin to slowly deteriorate, such as sex drive or general motivation. According to Erik Ericson, this is the last three stages in life in which you develop: intimacy or isolation, generativity or stagnation, and integrity or despair. This theory of balance developed by Erik appeals to me, because of how my parents and grandparents act. It leads me to believe that it is a true theory. Jean Piaget is a well-known figure on the psychology world due to his contributions on how a child develops schemas and memories.
His biggest impact was the development of his cognitive theory that stated cognitive growth occurs through aging and interaction within the world. Piaget theorized that children think differently from the way that adults do. He thought that children organize the knowledge that they learn from their experiences and interactions into schemas. When new information is learned, it is either assimilated or accomodated into a schema or creating an entirely new one.