Hofstede’s Model for Turkey
Power distance refer to the extent to which
people of culture expect and accept that power is unequally distributed in
Turkey has a high degree in this
dimension, which reach 66 degrees it is means that the following characterizes the Turkish
style: Dependent, hierarchical, superiors often inaccessible and the ideal boss
is a father figure. Employees depend on their superiors,
because superiors have full control, so employees expect to be told what to do.
Individualism refer to concerns itself with
the relationship between the individual and the group .The
meaning of this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society
maintains among its members. It has to do with whether people´s self-image is
defined in terms of “I” or “We”.
Turkey has a 37-degree in this
This explains to us that ‘we’ important in Turkish society . People in the
family or organizations or anything they have loyalty to each other . Communication
is indirect and the harmony of the group has to be maintained, open conflicts
are avoided. The relationship has a moral base and this always has priority
over task fulfillment .The time must be invested to establish a relationship of trust. Feedback is always indirect, also in the
Masculinity refer to high degree of
(masculine), this indicates that the society will be driven by competition,
achievement and success, and A low degree of (Feminine) means a Feminine
society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out
from the crowd is not important.
Turkey has 45 degrees and is on the Feminine
side of the scale. This means that the softer aspects of culture such as
leveling with others, consensus, sympathy for the underdog are valued and
encouraged. They are also interested in keeping away from conflict in public
life or work, and It is important to reach a consensus.
The Turkish people love to take advantage of their free time while sit with family and friends, and enjoy life. MAS index
is fairly medium as combined effect of European culture and Islamic culture.
4- UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:
Uncertainty Avoidance dimension refer to the
way that a society deals with the fact that they can’t be familiar with future:
should we try to control the future or just let the thing happen? This
ambiguity acquires anxiety so that different cultures have learnt to deal with
this anxiety in different ways. The degree to which the members of a culture feel
threatening toward ambiguous or unknown situations and the beliefs and
institutions that created to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance. Turkey has scores 85 on this dimension also, hence there
is an enormous need for laws and rules. In order to reduce anxiety, they use a
lot of rituals. For foreigners they might seem religious, with the many
references to “Allah”, but often it is just a traditional social patterns that
is used in specific situations to ease tension.
Turkey in this dimension are less risk
tolerant, less entrepreneurial and they avoid suspicious situations and
conflict also they need strict laws and rules to provide an order in the
5- LONG TERM ORENTATION:
This dimension refer to the way that how
every society has to preserve some links with its own past while dealing with
the challenges of the present and future, and societies give prioritize to
these two existential goals differently. Normative societies. which score low
on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honored traditions and
norms while viewing societal change. On the other hand, those with a culture
which scores high they take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Turkey’s intermediate score of 46 it is in
the middle of the scale, so no dominant cultural preference can be inferred.
This dimension is defined as the degree to
which people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they
were raised. Relatively weak control is called “Indulgence” and relatively
strong control is called “Restraint”. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained. With an intermediate score of 49, a characteristic
corresponding to this dimension cannot be determined for Turkey.
Hofstede’s Model for Saudi Arabia
Means the society
inequalities. It is the degree of which people of culture accept that power between the boss and the employees.
Saudi Arabia has a high degree in this dimension, which
reach 95 degrees. This high number, shows that Saudis have hierarchy system of
taking their orders. Also, the employees accept to be told what they must do
and what their bosses expect from them; which is part of centralization
2- UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:
This characteristic means that the Saudi
society prefer to maintain their beliefs, codes,
and the way of behaving rather than to go into new changes that it is unclear
In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it was
noticed that Saudis also has a high score of Uncertainty Avoidance. They are
very strict to their codes and beliefs.
Changes are not exactable unless they understand how it will benefit them. It takes long time to adopt with new
challenges and changes.
Individualism: when people concern about
themselves and about their direct family only. They are willing to compete with
others and focus only on their goals, they are communicating directly and prefer
to work alone.
Collectivism: when people concerned about their family, friends and about
the society. Have a good relationship with groups and a sense of belonging.
Collectivism people feel that they have a duty
to others and prefer to work in groups.
During comparison between Saudis and Turkish,
we found that there are not much differences. Both societies are collectivist where their families are at the top of their priorities. Yet, when it
comes to the career they are considered as individualism. Their relationships
cannot affect their management decisions., and prefer to work individually.
Masculinity: Means the society focus on
competition, success, and achievement
other than the relationship between people. And they separate between the
females and males. (Want to be the best).
Feminine: Means the society focus on caring for others,
quality of life, making good relationship
with others and equality between males and females.(People like what they do).
to Hofstede insight website, a study shows that the Saudi Arabian culture is
more masculinity than femininity. Furthermore, a low-levelinequality between males and females
in the workplace is notceted, but the new
govermental idea is work on these issues and give the women more rights such as
women driving on the saudi roads.
Turkey Norms and Values System:
culture has hundreds of years of recorded history. In this regard, Turkish’
culture will be analysed per its value system, norms, policies and communication.
Turkey is considered as one of the oldest nations in the world. The Turkish
culture is flowing the Islamic rules although the people in Turkey have
different religions such as Christianity and Judaism. This differentiation in
Turkey didn’t make it hard to live among each other and they all almost share
the same values and norms in the society.
people who live in Turkey are Muslim. There are also Christians. Most Muslims
in Turkey are Sunnis, forming about 75% of the overall Muslim denominations, so
there are mosques all over the country. Each religion has its holidays. The
main Islamic holidays are Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Islamic New Year, and the
birthday of the Prophet Muhammad. Christian holidays are Easter, Christmas. Muslims
have mosques and Christians have churches all can do they their things and they
accept each other.
majority of Turkish are Muslims so their culture also based on their religion
and values passed on from generation to generation within families.
people put their family and relatives before every thing. Family members meet
in every occasion and every single family member is supported without question.
Turkish people also are known to be very hospitable, they might invite you to
their houses and share the meal with you even if they don’t know you. There is
a saying in Turkey that goes ”stranger at the doorstep is the God’s guest”.
religion, we can see that some of Muslim’s women wear clothes that cover their
bodies and wear a hijab (covering their hair) or a niqab (covering their faces)
and other Muslims does not wear a hijab. The tradition for men is ?alvar, yelek
and cebken but now men impacted the Western world by they wear formal dress for
work or for Special occasions. Other religions do not do the same, they wear
what they want.
civil code made by the Parliament under the presidency of Atatürk outlawed
polygamy and repudiation, which are provided for in Islamic law of some Moslem
countries, albeit under strict regulations. In their place came civil marriage
and divorce, both to be registered with the civil authorities and both
entailing equal rights for the man and the woman. Marriage of a Muslim woman
with a non-Muslim man became legally possible.
is allowed for women in Turkey without any obligation except having a license
to do so.
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