Great Expectations was one of Dickens’ best-known novels, it was written in 1860. Great Expectations follows the progression of Pip from his childhood to adult; from humble blacksmith to gentleman; from innocence to experienced; from rags to riches. On Pip´s journey, Pip meets a range of interesting characters, from the comical Wemmick, to the cruel Estella. This novel reflects parts of Victorian times, child labour and improving one’s fortunes. In Victorian society, gentlemen were usually brought up from their birth, modeled and manipulated to act, dress, talk, and live as true gentility, but Pip had different way to become a gentleman, so it could be the reason of his problem in this position. Upon reaching adulthood, these gentlemen were expected to conduct themselves as society dictated. What happened when a man of lower social stature wished to become a gentleman, and suddenly found himself in the position to do it? He had the financial standing, but lacks the social etiquette that a “true” gentleman possesses. Whom can he turn to see a real model and guidance? This is exactly the situation Pip is faced in the novel Great Expectations. Throughout the Dickens is interested in what it means to be a gentleman. He tries to show us the correct meaning by a story about a young boy called Pip in which he were growing up and trying to become a gentleman, through Joe who is Pip’s brother in law, who is poor but very polite and hardworking man, and also thanks to Magwitch the convict, who is being changed through the story. When Pip firstly arrived to London, aspiring to be a gentleman, Matthew Pocket, Wemmick, and Herbert Pocket provided him the best examples of true gentlemen.Nedv?dová 2Pip was growing up through the novel he was developing and maturing from a young,inexperienced boy to a moral gentleman during his unbelievable life. At the beginning of the story Pipas the main character looks happy and seems to be contented with his life. He is kind, caring, polite,generous and companionate. Estella is the symbol of the first stage of the book. In this stage Pip isyoung boy and cannot understand what it means to be a gentleman and how it can affect his life in thefuture. He basically asks for three wishes which were consisted of education, wealth and socialadvancement. These three wishes seem to be perfect, so he can impress Estella. Pip doesn´t want tobecome a blacksmith as Joe. He desires to be intelligent and well educated. He also wants to beconsidered as a person of high importance. Basically, Pip knows that he must become uncommon forEstella and figures that Biddy is very intelligent and can help him reach his aim of being moreknowledgeable, but the nub of Pip’s problem is his origin. People never believed that this a countryboy, brought up in a blacksmith’s forge, can ever become gentleman and follow the higher social classand be at least acceptable for a girl as Estella who belongs to a higher social sphere. This is spelt out inthe very short Chapter 14, when Pip reflects gloomily on being doomed to a life at the forge, after hemet Estella everything in his life changed. Until this time he hasn´t seen different style of living.Estella makes Pip feel miserable. She taunts and belittles him by making fun of his appearance andcalling him Common. All the while, she was leading him, to make him suffer even more. Here Piprealized that he and his clothing and knowledge, are not up to the standards of high society and Estella.He also realizes that if he wishes to have any chance of anchoring Estella´s heart, he must getacquainted with finer clothing, become more knowledgeable and wealthy. Despite all this Pip,obsesses with Estella. This situation disturbs him the most to think that he and she could never betogether as partners. For the first time he dislikes his unusual life. In Chapter 17, when he made his’lunatic confession’ to Biddy as to ‘his particular reasons why he wants to be a gentleman’, namely,’The beautiful young lady at Miss Havisham’s, and she’s more beautiful than anybody ever was, and Iadmire her dreadfully, and I want to be a gentleman on her account'(Dickens). By being taught byBiddy Pip is hoping that during his visit to Satis House that Estella will see that he is paving. Lastly,Pip strides for self-improvement when he arrives in London and is diligent in his studies. WhenJaggers announced that there was an unknown person who wanted to send Pip to London to become aNedv?dová 3gentleman, Pip was overwhelmed with excitement and couldn’t believe his dream had come true. Hefelt that this gave him the opportunity to become the man of Estella’s dreams, which was all he couldthink about. His old friend Magwich comes back to become his benefactor. As his benefactor hefunded Pip in his academic studies and made a gentleman from Pip. Through this Pip’s dream hasbeing becoming true and he has started to act like a snob even though he truly isn’t. His attitude haschanged and he became “stuck up” and the exact opposite that he was in his childhood. This isevidence of a dynamic change in the story and it also shows that he couldn´t deal with his new roleand position. Pip lived the high life in London; he hired a servant and spent more money than he wassupposed to. He completely forgot about his life previous to this and when he was visited by his dearfriend Joe he acted disrespectful and lacked gratitude for all that his good friend had done for him. Hefelt as though he was too good for such a commoner. Unbeknown to Pip that he himself was no morethan a dishonourable gentleman.In the other part Pip is able to live his dreams of being educated and wealthy. In the secondpart instead of getting an education he needs work Pip is trained to be only a gentleman, which will behis downfall later in life. As he blends into this society of greed he starts to ignore the existence of hisfamily so much that he stops communicating with them. In this part we read really detailed descriptionof problems, which can happen, if someone gets money and isn´t able to deal with it. One day Pip ispresented with a fortune but through some terrible times he gives it all up and is left with nothing butsickness and debt. He mistreats Joe and Biddy. He finds out he is embarrassed to be around them. Hisrelationship with Estella is developing badly. They haven´t seen each other for years and the smallbond was broken in time. Estella then marries to Drummle instead of Pip and all his hopes for her havebeen lost as well. Pip also began to spend much more money and went into debt even with his secretbenefactor giving him money. Once Pip discovered who his benefactor truly was, and all his dreamsget shattered. He couldn´t believe that, a criminal had been supplying him with money all this time.Stage ends with Pip being broken and destroyed with all the problems he faced.When Pip noticed all the wrongs he had committed to those who had been the best to him hedecided to turn his life around by sacrificing his “expectations” for morality and inner worth. HeNedv?dová 4showed this by helping Magwitch escape, and even though it didn’t work Pip remained a devoted sonto the man he considered his “second father” until the day of Magwitch’s death. Pip was later given thechance to make a mend with Joe and found that he was a richer man in spirit now than he could everbe as a gentleman. Joe was deeply touched by Pip’s change and later named his son after him.Throughout Pip’s journey he was looking for a better life and he eventually discovered thatnothing compared to the life he could have with a sincere heart. His ignorance in the beginning wasone that all children have. When he discovered wealth the second stage of his life began. He becameenvious of all that he didn’t have or even understand. As he rode to the top of the social latter heslowly turned into one of them. When he eventually felt that the last stage of his life began, one ofmoral goodness and self-satisfaction.To sum up the idea somehow, I would say, that Pip is the exact example of person, whodoesn´t know, what is the most important goal in live and he is trying to find something better orbecome better for others. Unfortunately it is not so easy to find the right direction on the first attempt.In my opinion, his behaviour shows his main problem, he was growing up in a poor family, with hisstep-sister who hated him. So when Pip got the chance, he went away. But the money, which Pip gotfrom unknown person didn´t mean anything for him and his manner has changed and he started to beproud and selfish. After some time, he realized, he is alone and he found the right way home. It showsus, that people do mistakes and they need to try how it is look like when you are alone and withoutfriends and family. We can learn from this story, that it is not important how wealthy you are, but itreally depends on the people who are around you.