GLOBAL are they? In what perspective does global

GLOBAL WARMING AND EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES In our world, technology is improving day by day. Peopleinvent new tools, devices, transportation techniques, treatment techniques toillnesses and many other things.

These are good developments for humanity, however,it may have some bad effects, which we can call, alienation. Alienation means experiencing and inducing feelings ofisolation or estrangement, according to the Oxford dictionary. We can expressthis as someone is so unaware of the world because he focuses on his work toomuch. The person becomes insensitive to events those happening in theenvironment, which may harm them today, or in the future.

An example of thiscould be, today, we see many political events happening in Turkey, which areaffecting or will affect people’s lives. However, an average person from thestreet could say that ‘I don’t care. I am not a politician’. Despite he is nota politician, these political decisions would have more affect on his life, ifhe doesn’t care more. Global warming, in a sense, is a similar case. It is notcounted as a big issue in people’s minds. Global warming is basically theobserved and projected increases in the average temperature of Earth’satmosphere and oceans (Definition for Global Warming, n.d.

).  According to National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, average temperature around the world have risen by 0.8 Celsiusdegrees since 1880 (Global Warming Mapped, n.

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d.). Moreover, National Oceanicand Atmospheric Administration states that 2016 was the first, 2015 was thesecond and 2017 was the third warmest year in 137 years’ period of record (2017was 3rd warmest year, 2018). The results don’t seem good, but how bad are they?In what perspective does global warming harm or could harm people? Global warming is a huge problem to the Earth and it isneeded to be taken into consideration. Epistemic communities have potential tosolve this problem, but they are not able to do this because of some barriers.These will be covered in this research. Effects of Global Warming There are some reasons why global warming is a big problem.

The first reason is desertification. Desertification is the process of fertilelands become desert. We can also call this as land degradation. According toUNESCO, one third of world’s land surface is under threat of desertification(Desertification, Drought, 2012). It has many bad effects. Desertificationmakes farming impossible.

Once desertification happens in a place, it is soexpensive to gather it back, or even it is not possible. This would make thepeople on that place be hungry. In the long run, people  move out of that place. One of the reasons ofoverpopulation is this.

Furthermore, these reasons may lead to poverty. And also,natural disasters’ effects could increase because of global warming. Flooding,for example, could happen more harshly when there is nothing to stop thatflood.

All of these are likely to happen when desertification occurs. Global warming melts ice glaciers. This is ruining naturalliving spaces, polar bears’ for example. A big result of melting ice glacier isthe increase of sea level. Sea water seeps into fresh water, which makes ourdrinking water contaminated. Irrigation is also under risk because of the samereason. Fresh water is important for plants.

Thus, melting of glaciers is athreat to humanity. According to NASA, global warming could increase the effectof hurricanes and cyclones. (Storms are Getting Stronger, n.d.).

They statethat the storms may be fewer but stronger. It is visible that how disasteroustoday’s hurricanes are. These are likely to become worse if global warming’seffect increases. Causes of Global Warming The main reason of global warming is greenhouse effect,which is caused by greenhouses gases. Greenhouse gases are a group of compoundswhich traps heat in the atmosphere, making the Earth’s surface warm.

Thiswarming process is called greenhouse effect. The main greenhouse gases arewater vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide. (A blanket around the Earth,n.

d.). Greenhouse gases make the Earth a warm place.

If there is no greenhouseeffect, people won’t be able to live in this planet because of cold. However,if it is more than enough, the Earth experiences extra warming. This could beproblem for many species. Human activities are the main source of excessive greenhousegases. United States Environmental Protection Agency made a research aboutthese gases and investigated the proportion of the emissions in 2010 (GlobalEmissions by Gas, 2017).

25 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions occurfrom electricity and heat production. Burning of coal, natural gas, and oil forelectricity are the main parts of it. Secondly, industrial activities had 21percent of global greenhouse emissions. These include mostly burning fossilfuels. 20 percent comes from agricultural activities. Transportation had 14percent of total. Fossil fuels play important part in all of these above.  According to Carbon Dioxide InformationAnalysis Center Data, carbon emissions from fossil fuels had significantlyincreased since 1990 (Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, 2017).

  This is a problem. Possible Long Term Effects of Global Warming According to Third National Climate Assesment Report, globalwarming could cause real disaster if it couldn’t be stopped (The consequencesof climate change, n.d.). They state that frost-free season, which correspondsby growing season would lengthen. It may help increasing plant productivity,however, changes in climate extremes such as natural disasters may reduce this.So it is unpredictable.

Heavy precipitations (rain, snow) could occur.Similarly, droughts, heat waves, hurricanes, cyclones’ effects could increase.It is projected that in the year 2100, sea level could rise 30 to 120 cm.

 As seen, global warming causes ‘ambiguity’ in many fields,so it has to be stopped. International Environmental Law The United Nations Environment Programme concerned withassessing global, regional and national environmental trends, developinginternational environmental instruments and strengthening instutions for themanagement of the environment (Overview, n.d.).

They basically state twothings, preserving human environment and sustainable development around theworld.   http://unimelb.libguides.com/c.php?g=403018&p=2742085#14509500 http://web.

unep.org/divisions/delc/our-work/environmental-law/international-environmental-law          Time for Change (n.d.). Definition for global warming – whatis global warming?    Retrieved fromhttp://timeforchange.org/definition-for-global-warming-what-is-global-warming    Earth, N. V.

(2009, August 11). GlobalWarming Mapped.          Retrieved fromhttps://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=47628 NOAA: 2017 was 3rd warmest year on record for the globe. (2018)    Retrieved fromhttp://www.noaa.

gov/news/noaa-2017-was-3rd-warmest-year-on-record-for-globe  Desertification, Drought Affect One Third of Planet, WorldsPoorest People, Second Committee         Told as It Continues Debate on SustainableDevelopment | Meetings Coverage and Press      Releases.(2012, November 8).       Retrieved fromhttps://www.un.org/press/en/2012/gaef3352.doc.

htm In a Warming World, the Storms May Be Fewer But Stronger :Feature Articles. (n.d.).             RetrievedJanuary 19, 2018, from       https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/ClimateStorms/page2.php Climate change causes: A blanket around the Earth.

(2017, August10).                     Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.

gov/causes/ Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. (2017, April 13).                                   Retrieved fromhttps://www.

epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data Laboratory, O. R. (n.d.).

Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions.                               Retrieved from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob_2014.html Overview.

Retrieved fromhttp://web.unep.org/about/who-we-are/overview