Ghazali, Abu Hamid al-?Influential Ashari theologian
(d. 1111 ), jurist and mystic. Born in Khurasan, he studied theology and
law. While teaching law at Nizamiyya College in Baghdad, he suffered a
spiritual crisis, withdrew from public life and spent eleven years in travel
and Sufi studies. His best-known work is ‘Ihya ulum al-din’ (Revival of the
religious sciences), an attempt to integrate theology and law, ethics and
mysticism. Other important works include ‘Al-munqidh min al-dalal’ (Delivery
from error), a spiritual guidebook, and ‘Tahafut al-falasafah’ (Destruction of
the philosophers), an effort to debunk philosophy. His vast learning,
systematic thought and lucid style make him popular to this day.
Ghazali, Muhammad al-?An Egyptian religious scholar
(d. 1996 ) and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood. He
served as director of the Mosques Department, director general of Islamic Call,
and under-secretary of the Ministry of Awqaf in Egypt. He taught at al-Azhar
University in Cairo, at King Abd al-Aziz and Umm al-Qura
Universities in Saudi Arabia and in Qatar, and was academic
director of Amir Abd al-Qadir Islamic University (Algeria). He was the author
of more than forty books on Islam’s public role in politics and economics and
supported the formation of an Islamic party in Egypt. He promoted the reduction
of reliance on hadith in
contemporary jurisprudence in favour of looking to both the Islamic past and
contemporary societies (Muslim or non-Muslim) as a source of inspiration.
ghusl?Full ablution performed by Muslims before prayer, washing the
whole body including the nostrils, mouth and head. Ghusl is also performed by
women after menstruation or childbirth, all adult Muslims after sexual
intercourse or any sexual discharge, and is performed on all Muslims who die of
natural causes (see also wudhu, tayyamum).
gilt-edged bond? Bonds
issued by blue chip companies or governments, considered safe, profitable and
reliable. The term originated in Britain and refers to the debt securities
issued by the Bank of England, which had a gilded (gilt) edge.
but often-used form of gross
go short, going short?A phrasal verb synonymous
with ‘to short sell’.
almighty spirit worshipped by Jews,
Christians and Muslims. Muslims call
God Allah and place
particular emphasis on God being the only one, hence the term monotheism which
applies to the Abrahamic
religions but not (for example) Hinduism, which is polytheistic (mono is a Greek prefix meaning single; poly is also Greek and means multiple).
Muslims believe Allah created the world, the universe and all life, and
continues to guide mankind and determines when each person will be born and
when they will die. However, their decisions and actions during life will
determine their fate after they die and this judgement is made by Allah.