From this point on, the book stops referring to the main character as Santiago but instead as “the boy.” This creates a generic sense of structure within the story so anyone could relate to it. Santiago becomes a mythical icon.The author uses foreshadowing in order to hint that the dream will become a part of a story later on.Here the author uses a simile in order to convey how close the shepherd and his sheep were. We also get a sort of foreshadowing that the sheep are more important than they seem.Again, the author shows us how emotionally connected the boy is to his sheep, even to the point where he talks to them knowing that they understand him.The boy’s romantic/platonic attraction to the girl is our first idea of the central conflict. Somewhere later in the story, he will be forced to make an important and life-altering decision.Again, we get our first glimpse at the central conflict. The boy rejects his feelings, trying to make himself feel because he knows that he may never see her. She represents the first signal Santiago’s life will never be the same, questioning his choice of shepherding. The girl also becomes one of the obstacles that hinders his progression.The boy envies the fact that all his sheep need to be happy is food and water. Happiness seems much more complicated for humans. Santiago also feels frustrated that his sheep don’t appreciate traveling as much as he does, nothing that he could kill them one by one without them even realizing. By defying his parents, Santiago has taken the first steps into taken control of his life. The author uses repetition in order to further cement the fathers ideas that traveling doesn’t change people, for the better or worse.We begin to get an idea of what the story will be about, a boy learning about his destiny and doing what he loves to do. Unfortunately, his father was never able to achieve his dreams from burying them due to environmental/economic reasons.This personification represents how the boy’s dad’s conversation with him “suddenly appeared.”Again, we get a glimpse at the possible theme for the story. It also foreshadows that something life-changing will happen soon.As stated in the previous entry, the author further conveys that the boy will soon experience something big.In a way, the author is satirizing human ways of life. People live only for physical contemptment (food and water) without really looking for a deeper, more fulfilling purpose.From this passage onwards, the tone dramatically changes from being inspiring, lighthearted, and upbeat to sinister and fearful. He’s entering into uncharted territory.While the boy wants to find a higher purpose in life, he also doesn’t want to leave the comfort of his existing life. This encounter shows that the boy doesn’t place much value on his dreams (yet). While he chose to be a shepherd instead of a priest, he finds the idea of traveling to the Pyramids in order to find treasure to be ridiculous.People are so quick to judge others without looking in the mirror and seeing that they themselves are also flawed.This is one of the main themes of the novel: to never believe in the world’s greatest lie. Realize fate doesn’t control your life, but the choices you choose. You don’t need to be born rich or in a supportive area, but have enough faith in yourself that you can follow your dreams. Melchizedek was a Biblical figure who was the King of Salem and also a priest. This allusion makes Melchizedek seem trustworthy, holy, and kind. It makes his blessing even more important since he’s a part of the religious world.Yet again, the boy is questioning his personal legend. Sooner of later he’s going to have to make the choice. Will he drop everything and go on this potentially risky journey, or stay at home and living a decent, but unsatisfying life?Instead of just shrugging off his dream as preposterous, he actually starts to consider taking a pilgrimage to the Pyramids. Melchizedek proves to Santiago that he has somewhat supernatural abilities and is at least somewhat wise. The boy feels convinced that he should listen to the old man & take his advice. Again, the tone changes to be more inspiring and motivating. Melchizedek is trying to steer Santiago into the right direction where he will achieve his dreams.If there’s a deep enough desire in what you want to complete, then the pieces of the puzzle will sooner or later fall into place and help you achieve your Personal Legend.When the baker adopts society’s ideas of success, his dream suffers. Culture & societal factors work not as a friend, but as an enemy in a lifelong tug-of-war with the individual.Societal biases and expectations demean people who choose not to live their life like society sees fit. Deviating from the norm is heavily frowned upon.In an effort to fit in, people choose to live a sad, unfulfilling but decent life instead of following their dreams that would’ve made them happier. Like a fire, we starve our aspirations and they slowly die out as we stop having faith in our Personal Legend and begin to replace our dreams with society’s ideas of success.The Moors was a group of Islamic people who invaded Spain around the 8th century. The author might’ve included this passage as a contradiction to Santiago’s journey. The boy is making a pilgrimage from Spain to Africa while the Moors came from Africa to Spain.The winds are symbolic of Santiago’s choice. Should he go to Egypt of stay in Spain and shepherd sheep? The levanter gets stronger the longer the boy thinks about what he should do. Santiago is also really indecisive, rethinking his choices multiple times before actually making a choice.The sheep symbolize the multitude of ways material commodities can either help or hinder one’s own Personal Legend. Without the boy’s flock, Santiago would never have been able to trade with Melchizedek for important information about his treasure. On the other hand, the boy’s sheep are the only thing holding him back from traveling to Egypt as they provide him a decent life, personal satisfaction, and some kind of company. Why would you throw that all away? Fulfilling your Personal Legend requires you to step out of your comfort zone and try new things.Urim and Thummim are elements from the Hebrew Bible. They were given to him by Melchizedek as a tool to guide him through his Personal Legend. Santiago uses these rocks in order to respond to omens, an important part of the story.The secret to happiness is to look at the good side of life but to never put off your responsibilities. Aspirations we want to get dumped in the back behind of what you should be worrying about. Clear out everything you don’t love doing, and prioritize what makes you happy. Despite this, don’t forget your obligations, the drops of oil.Melchizedek isn’t just some irrelevant king from a random book. He’s an immortal being who appears throughout the centuries helping people achieve their God-given destinies. He remembers Biblical times, and ponders over the thought that he’s never going to see Santiago again, just like how he never saw Abraham after he gave him the same one-tenth fee.Santiago’s first experience in Tangier represents just how hard getting out of your comfort zone is. Tangier feels uncomfortably foreign and alien, calling others “infidels” for acting different than what he deems normal. He immediately pays for this prejudice when he chooses to trust the Spanish-speaking man instead of the Arabic bartender who knew better. Santiago is robbed of all his money the second he wasn’t looking.Paul uses anaphora in order to show how grief stricken Santiago is. He even reconsiders the whole journey and almost goes back to Spain.Instead of focusing on Umin and Thummim’s material value, the now boy only cares about how valuable might be. He considers selling in order to get his sheep back and return to his normal life. Remembering Melchizedek’s words renews his commitment to his quest.Even after being robbed of virtually all of his money after being backstabbed, Santiago retains hope and stays positive about his situation.Even if he may never get to the pyramids, the boy already feels that he somehow already completed his aspiration: to travel new places. Santiago’s ability to see the silver lining is one of his character traits.The “universal language” becomes an important part of the story’s theme. Omens are a way the universal language communicates people’s Personal Legend.The crystal merchant is an example of someone who’s forgotten about their Personal Legend. He’s scared of changing in order to fit the changing customs of Tangier. While he may be living decently, daily life has grown dull and unsatisfying.The crystal merchant believes in omens. Though Santiago has no money and doesn’t present any job traits, he hires him anyways because he sees Santiago as a possible omen.The Koran is a religious text of Islam which is believed to be from God. The Abrahamic religions are also an important part of the story. According to the story, God brings people together through the universal language.While the merchant knows he’s living a subpar life, he fears change. He fears that completing his Personal Legend will make his life even more dull after he completes it because he has nothing to look forward to after that. Therefore, the merchant lives his days only dreaming about going to Mecca.Even though Santiago has exposed him to his Personal legend, the merchant still feels inclined due to fear of change, He lives his life just like Santiago’s sheep. He’s blind to the more thrilling parts of life, content with material and social desires.Urim and Thummim symbolizes the world’s greatest lie that humans don’t control their fates. Though Melchizedek gave Santiago the stones, they represent exactly what he advocated against: trusting others in order to make decisions. Ultimately, Santiago makes the right choice and rejects the lie by promising to make his own decisions. The Englishman represents a different viewpoint we haven’t seen in the book. Unlike Santiago who relies solely on instinct and gut feelings, the man is highly educated and relies on learning.People who believe in omens are generally seen as being wise or highly educated in the novel. They also likely believe in the Soul of the World and the universal language.Esperanto is an artificial language with more than two million speakers worldwide. It has mostly Indo-European roots, but also borrows words from other languages such as Hebrew. It’s easy to learn and had simple grammar rules. The language was created by Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof in the 18th century. It was intended to be used as a universal language. The author included Esperanto as an allusion in order to relate to the central idea of a universal language.We finally know why the book is titled The Alchemist. The Englishman introduces us to the ideas and fundamentals of alchemy. These ideas become very influential and are used as a metaphor for Santiago’s journey. Alchemy may sounds simple in nature, but it is actually quite complex in practice, just like the boy’s Personal Legend.The mysterious chain that links one to another is known as the Soul of the World (which can be referred to as God). The Soul of the World is also has heavy religious influences, being the belief that all things in nature are divine.Just like someone pursuing their Personal Legend, the caravan may take multiple detours and make many adjustments, but it’s always heading the same direction.The boy is judging the Englishman for not paying attention at the voyage. Instead, he reads his books.The driver is like the crystal merchant. Even he made the voyage to Mecca his lifelong dream. Unlike the merchant, though, he has overcome his satisfaction. When a flood wipes out his entire orchard, he learns to embrace the unknown and embrace fate. He strongly believes in the philosophy that everything happens for a reasons.Arabic for “it is written,” the word appears often in the story. The word comes from the idea of fate & destiny. According to Islamic teaching, Allah writes people’s destiny. Therefore, anything that happen has a reason for it. The Soul of the World is referred to by the Englishman as “the principle that governs all things.” Similar to the refining of metals in order to reveal the Soul of the World, Santiago must purify himself of materialism and outside forces in order to achieve his Personal Legend.The Englishman and the boy realize that they both have the tools the other needs to reach their Legend. In a way, the Master’s Work is a metaphor for someone’s Personal Legend. As the Master’s Work is an alchemist’s end goal, so is someone’s Personal Legend.The Elixir of Life was a potion said to give the drinker immortality and/or eternal youth and cure all diseases. The Philosopher’s Stone was foretold to have the ability to turn base metals into gold. Effort to find the Stone was known was the “Great Work.” Including an allusion such as this adds to the mythical atmosphere of the story.Again, the concept of alchemy becomes a metaphor for one’s Personal Legend. Similar to how to boy gave up his wealth in hopes to find even more wealth, alchemists create gold out of base metals such as lead. Santiago must also purify himself of materialism and outside forces, as alchemist purify metals into gold.Just like how following your destiny isn’t an easy voyage, neither is achieving the Master Work. It’s filled with detours and the looming thought of going back to your average, but unsatisfying life.It’s only those who are persistent, and willing to work hard, who achieve their Personal Legend.The Englishman and the boy both try to learn from each other’s ways of learning, but ultimately decide that their way is superior.Live in the present and worry less about what happened in the past and what the future has to bring. We can’t get the past back, and the future isn’t ours yet.The boy takes the man’s advice and appreciates the beauty of today despite him knowing that it’ll become a memory eventually.While the men are getting off the caravan, the alchemist watches from a distance. He appears to have magical powers as he knows in advance that a man will arrive looking for him.You don’t realise how important something is until you’re deprived from it for an extended period of time. After such a long voyage across the desert, the men are impressed by the greenery after not seeing them for such a long time.The man knows that alchemy cannot be transferred through words or pictures. The knowledge must lie in the way those words are said instead of the actual content.Santiago realizes that the obstacles which stop him from reaching his Legend are ultimately part of his journey towards his end goal. He can’t control what plan lays ahead of him, so he opens up to new experiences.The “universal language” is just another word for love. It’s the ultimate way of communication, not just a human feeling. We’re all made of the same thing, and connected with the universal language, love.Although it may seem that Fatime has become an obstacle towards the boy’s Personal Legend, his time with her becomes part of his journey rather than a blockade.. Their love affair may move quickly, but it continues to serve the story’s theme of interconnectedness. Their love becomes symbolic, comparing it to the “Language of the World.” The boy becomes closer with the mysterious forces that tie the world together.Fatima understands that there’s enough room for Santiago to achieve his Personal Legend and love Fatima.The Englishman’s fear of failure is similar to Santiago’s fear of moving into an unknown environment. Both forces keep them from moving forward and achieving their Personal Legend.Watching a pair of hawks into the air, he thinks about Fatima. Santiago feels more at peace because he’s in love.The vision Santiago has shows how much closer he’s becoming to the Soul of the World. Previously, his past visions and omens only gave vague clues into the future. Now, the boy is given a clear vision of the future.We see a conflict of beliefs. Fate can be changed if God allows it, similar to what Melchizedek previously said. However, multiple other characters believe otherwise. The repetition of maktub suggests that God has already created a fixed path for everyone to follow.After he receives an omen, the boy always hesitates to act upon them. This time is no different. He never questions what he saw, but questions whether he should act upon it. Eventually, the camel driver convinces him to tell the chieftains about his vision. Even when they warn that they’ll kill him if he’s wrong, he feels confident that he made the right choice.The boy feels no fear because he knows that he’ll die trying to achieve his Personal Legend.As a result of Santiago’s vision coming true, the chieftains award him with gold and the offer of becoming the counselor of the oasis. With all these awards, Santiago becomes more confident in his abilities.Though the Englishman seems like the better student for the alchemist, he ultimately chooses the boy due to his existing knowledge of Language of the World. Santiago hesitates to continue because he feels satisfaction in his current state of being. He argues that he already has his wealth (a camel, gold, and a lover). However, the alchemist pushes him forward.The challenges posed by the alchemist shows how much better Santiago is becoming in understanding the novel’s beliefs. The alchemist only gives a vague hint, but Santiago immediately understands him and finds a snake in a hole.Yet again, Santiago feels compelled to stay in the oasis and be contempt with what he has. According to the alchemist, Santiago’s relationship with Fatima will eventually deteriorate, his ability to see into the Soul of the World will go away, he will be excused from his role as counselor, and the omens will vanish as as he regrets his choice when it’s already too late. Only by following his Personal Legend will he be able to find lifelong satisfaction.In the novel, love seems to have less importance than one’s Personal Legend. Fatima alone cannot give Santiago his fairytale ending.In The Alchemist, language refers to things that carry knowledge or mean anythingThe Emerald Tablet is a symbol of simplicity. Future alchemist grew weary of its simple nature, and created complexity. Alchemy became a popular philosophical idea, but few came out successful. Humans blindly create barriers to their own goals.As time went on, alchemy became more and more complicated. People were only concerned in creating gold, but not their own Personal Legend or the philosophical journey it takes to achieve it. The journey in achieving your Legend matters more than the actual treasure you may receive.In context of the novel, the world is sort of a tutorial level. You learn everything that was intended here, and use those skills in the actual game: heaven.The alchemist teaches Santiago that learning doesn’t just have to be extensive studying, but can instead be careful studyingIn The Alchemist, the human heart is the literal representation of the phrase “follow your heart.” It carries the boy’s most innate desires, and he must learn to listen to them.We learn that your heart is connected to the Soul 0f the World. Due to this, Santiago must properly learn to use this ability.His heart doesn’t anyways influence him positively, though. It conveys fear, misses Fatima, and even distracts him from the main goal. He must come to peace with himself before he can “tame” his heart.Santiago originally felt inclined to follow his Personal Legend, simply because he was a poor farmer and he didn’t feel that he deserved such things. Throughout the story, the boy has had to overcome his fear in order to progress through his Personal Legend. He’s afraid to sell his sheep, leave Fatima, and leave his shepherd life. People are afraid to follow their dreams out of self-doubt or feThe boy finds even greater treasures than he when he learns to overcome his fear. When Santiago mustered up the courage to tell the chieftains about his vision, he was rewarded gold and counselor of the oasis.This passage foreshadows Santiago’s final challenge: being able to control the wind in only three days.Most people don’t believe someone who have acquired great riches.Alchemists who only care about successfully creating gold never end up successful. Only those who are concerned with the journey to it will be able to create the Master Work.During Santiago’s journey, he realized that other beings have their own Personal Legend, such as the Englishman. He’s pursuing his treasure through the use of books on alchemy. While this may not be Santiago’s way, he must respect other people’s paths.The novel presents the idea that death is unimportant. Santiago is only able to complete his Personal Legend when he realizes that death itself isn’t a threat. If he dies during his journey, he dies in pursuit of his Legend.This passage is a metaphor for defying the odds and persisting in such a negative environment. Even with the general absence of water and other vital necessities, life can still be found.Love is the symbiotic relationship between two living beings. One nourishes the other with what they’ve created. Eventually, that care will be returned in another manner.Santiago is able to talk to the desert and the wind because they all speak the Language of the World. The theme of unity through a common language is one of the novel’s focal points.The theme of unity is further emphasized with this passage. All beings are linked together to the Soul of the World and were also all created by the same hand (God). As the world’s elements evolve, they grow into “one thing only.”Santiago tells the sun that all things have a Personal Legend. When something achieves its Personal Legend, it grows into something even better than it was before. As the world’s elements evolve, they also grow into “one thing only.” Eventually, all the things in the universe will become one when they complete their Legend. This passage is foreshadowing that Santiago will eventually be robbed of all his gold at the Pyramids. This raises the possibility that the alchemist can also see into the future, since he was the one who told him of it.While we may not see it right now, following your dreams is another piece added to the bigger picture.