Foundation is very important part of a building.

Foundation and types of foundation

 

 

Foundation;

                            That Structure that
spread the load of upper structure to the natural soil. The lowest part of a
structure is called foundation. Foundation is very important part of a
building. Foundation is a designing structure. Foundation engineering is
related of soil mechanics and rock mechanics.

 

 FOUNDATION TYPES;

                                                Main two types foundation

Shallow foundation

Deep foundation             

 

1.        low foundation; 

                       

               

      

Shallow
foundation types of building groundwork that transmit the building load to
earth nearly to surface of earth.  Somewhat
than sub surface cover range of depths deep foundation. Shallo foundations
consist of spread foundations, Mat-slab, pad, rubble trench basics,
slab-on-grade foundations, and earth bag foundations.

Different
types of shallow or low foundation;

1.   Strip foting ;

                           this
footing is given that for  load-bearing.
Strip footing provide for line
of column which is directly space that spread footings overlap handle all
further. Its more cheap to offer a footing than provide number of spread
footings in line. Strip
footing is recognized as continuou footing.

 

 

 

 

                                Sketch Of Strip

2.   Isolated foundation or Footing:

                                   Isolated foundation
or foting is providing to hold personage column. Spread footing is round,
four-sided figure otherwise rectangular slab of identical width. now and then,
it step or curved to increase the load over a large area.

3.   Mutual Footing:

                            Mutual footing
chains more than one  columns. It is use
when  more columns are shut to both other
their personality footings was partly cover. Mutual footing is provide when land line so seal one the
column that spread footing or foundation  would crazily full while reserved fully inside
the land line. Mutual it with that of an center
column, the load is squarely dispersed. Combined footing rectangular or
trapezoidal in plan.

 

 

 

 

4.   Raft Foundations:

                                        Mat or raft foundation is a big slab sustaining
figure of columns or walls below whole structure or great piece of a structure.
Mat is necessary as acceptable soil force is small or everywhere columns or
walls are thus shut so as to entity footings would overlap or almost feel every
other.

Mat foundations are helpful
in dropping the disparity settlement on homogeneous soils or wherever there are
huge difference in the loads on personage columns.

 

                                                              Raft Foundation     

 

Deep foundation

A deep base is category of base that
transfer building loads to earth surface out of losing since the surface are shallow
foundation do sub surface coat or range of lowest point.         

 

Deep foundation
types;

The deep
foundations types in common apply are follows;

1.   Basement foundation;

                                         
 These void sub structures planned to give working or cargo
space space lower earth level . The structural plan is govern by their
efficient necessities fairly than starting consideration of the majority
capable process of resist outside earth and hydrostatic force. Thair are
constructed in situate in release excavations.

 

2.    Pile foundation;

                                       Pile foundation is reasonably lengthy
and trim member constructed by powerful preformed unit to the preferred
founding level, or by heavy or drilling-in tube to the necessary deepness – the
tube individual packed with concrete after or throughout extraction or drill
unlined or totally or in part ruled bore holes
which are filled with concrete.

                         

                                   Pile foundation;

 

3.   BOX;

           Boxare void sub structures planned to
be construct or close to exterior and after that downcast as only unit their
compulsory level.

 

                

                        

                              Foundation Design

  Being bright to full a foundation design is extremely
expert purpose and typically is perform by structural trick. It require learn
and assessment of several workings, and its main structure of any building, while
its bottom of it.  

 

   Foundation Depths;

                                     
The compulsory
depth of foundation is depend on more than a few factors like’

 

1.   Soil bearing capacity ;

                                             First is important for best
foundation design that soil bearing is good. that how much resistance in soil.

 

2.     Soil types;

                             This depth be different depending type of soil underneath the
structure.

 

3.    Ground water table;      

                                                
Ground water table is usually in reported from soil study.

 

4.          The bare minimum deepness
be supposed to not to be fewer than 18 inches agree to deduction of peak soil
and variation in groundlevel. but, bases on structure, the engineer will choose
the finest deepness.