Firstly, literacy. To sum up, Gilster (1997) described

we should synchronize the definition of literacy the writer use in this paper. Literacy
here is the same with reading and writing skills that are able to be train, to
be taught, and to be learned in school or any other places. Yet, literacy is an
everywhere situated and is not separable with practices (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005, p. 3). For example, if
one goes to the bank and about to signing a bank check, and the person filling
the form of the check. While filling the check, that person is doing what is
called literacy practices. Then we could see here ‘filling the check’ is not
merely caused by the ability to write, no. ‘Filling the check’ here what we
call a social practice because it is related to something we do in real life,
and ‘banking’ is the correct definition of the social practice of the example.
Furthermore, we could see the importance of literacy studies as a social
practice because literacy now has advanced as a life-skill in any cultural
activity (Dewayanti & Retnaningdyah, 2017, p. 10).

the traditional concept of literacy, which is reading and writing, are still the
soul of the digital literacy. However, in digital literacy, it provides
different and advancing facility for us to use the technology, which are the
technology to receive and communicate within the technology. Moreover, digital
literacy also provides us bigger number of skills than the traditional
literacy, such as reading an e-book, finding and acquiring journal, sharing
videos via social media, video calling people from overseas, and many other
thing related to the use of technology, and receiving and communicating through
technology. Thus, we see digital literacy as a competency that needs several
skills required to master to be able to be active in virtual society (Lankshear & Knobel, 2008). Furthermore,
digital literacy also needs some technical competences, which is called
computer competence; such as using advanced electronic devices such as laptop,
personal computer, or smartphones to be able to use the digital literacy. To
sum up, Gilster (1997) described digital
literacy as how we use and understand any related information and communication,
and the importance of acquiring such skills to be able to survive in this
digital era.

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