Faculty of Pharmacy, Nursing and Health professionsDepartment of Audiology and Speech Therapy. Rehabilitation ofclients with special needsSPAU 433 Assignment Comparison between DIR and ABAInstructorMr.Thair Odeh Made byAnwar Jolany 1142344 Date: January 19,2018 For AutismSpectrum Disorders(ASD) children an early treatment is important for them aswill as the early diagnosis. The behavioral approaches are used to treatchildren with ASD, the approaches include different programs such as theDevelopmental-Individual Difference-Relationship Based Model(DIR) and theApplied Behavior Analysis(ABA). The DIR modelis a treatment approach that focuses on learning the communication skills whichis needed to the social interaction with other people.
Also, is focused on the”Opening and closing circles” which the child use in his context to directplay. The participation between the family and the educational team is importantto increase these circles. The development of appropriate play and interactionare shaped by the adults.
The DIR model is useful to build shared attentionthat leads to engagement and to practice on communication and problem solving. Apart of the DIR is the Floortime model which encourage the ASD child tointeract with parents and other through play activities on the floor in anatural sitting (home, play session, playground). It’s focuses on multi goalswhich are: following the child lead, challenging him to be more creative andspontaneous; and also involving his senses, motor skills, and emotions.Intensive DIR/Floortime programs up to be over 25 hours per week.The ABA approachis used to help the ASD child to build a variety of skills (social skills,communication, self-monitoring, and self-control) as will as help him togeneralize these skills into other situations. It focuses on the theory ofbehavior which says that behaviors can be learned and taught through a systemof rewards and consequences.
Analyze the behavior using the ABC model (A isstate for antecedent, B for Behavior; and C for consequence) is the first stepin the ABA. Strategies of ABA help to reduce problematic repertoires and buildsocially useful ones. The strategies include task analysis, chaining, prompting,fading, shaping, differential reinforcement, generalization, video modeling,discrete trial training (DTT), and natural environment training (NET). ABA techniquescan be used in both structured (classroom) and everyday (family dinnertime)settings and in one-on-one or group instruction.
ABA techniques are used inintensive, early intervention (below the age of 4 years) programs. IntensiveABA programs total from 25 to 40 hours per week for 1 to 3 years. The DIR andABA share three main similarities which are the involvement of parents,intensive planning, and progressive steps toward a goal.
First, theinvolvement of parents. In Floortime, parents are a large part of therapy. Theparents work with the therapist to create goals and engage their child in boththerapy sessions and in everyday environments. In ABA parents are involved inplanning programs and the setting of goals, as well as regular meetings to seetheir child’s progress.
Second, the intensive planning. Both programsrequire intense amounts of time, Floortime includes intentional time with theparent throughout the day plus sessions with a therapist, are up to be over 25hours per week. ABA often has more than 25 hours per a week of therapy with thetherapist directly. Finally, The progressive steps toward a goal.
Both the ABA and Floortime require a progression of levels in order to reach agoal. Floortime gathering the child’s attention and focus so that child can beready to learn, while the ABA teaches “how to learn” behaviors.Also, DIRand ABA have multiple differences such as how the child’s mood affects hislevel of attention and the role of relationships in therapy, how the child processes and learns, how the childviews the world and shares his ideas, and how well emotion is regulatedthroughout the programming. First, howthe child’s mood affects his level of attention and the role of relationshipsin therapy. Parents play a major role in Floortime. The relationship with theparent is supportive and loving, that brings emotions to the front of Floortimetherapy, furthering communication, attention, and engagement.
Every behavior isimportant and is analyzed to understand what the ASD child is trying tocommunicate. Although in the ABA the parents are involved, parents do notnecessarily play a role in implementing therapy, but rather reinforce the ABAtechniques across settings.Second, howthe child processes and learns. The DIR focuses on the unique “sensory motorprofile” each child had, that explains the child’s behaviors and directs thefuture of treatments. However, the ABA considers these behaviors and individualdifferences to be antecedent or consequence of other behaviors.
Third, Howthe child views the world and shares his ideas. In Floortime, the child usesself-directed play to represent his internal representations of the world andhis ideas. However, the ABA teaches the ASD child how to play, that is believedto allow future development and growth in their processes and expressions ofinternal ideas.Finally, howemotion is regulated. In Floortime, parents demonstrate and provide emotions totheir child, including support and love.
When the ASD child reacts with anykind of emotion (anger, fear, joy, etc.), therapists and parents attempt tofind what caused that reaction. However, with ABA, moods and emotions areconsidered behaviors that can be changed and measured through reinforcements. Desiredbehaviors are rewarded with a positive reinforcement, but the root of behaviorsis not considered.