Ewles and Sinmnett, (2010) demonstratesthat Bradshaw Taxonomy (1972) theory identify that long-term smokersmight feel that they want to have lung cancer screening done at an earlierstage but do as well continue to smoke, the individual felt need may berestricted for example to their awareness and knowledge about the signs andsymptoms of lung cancer. Whereas, expressed need is what the individual saythey need for example smokers that feel they need to have screening then intoturn it into a demand need for instance the screening. However not all the feltneed of a smoke can turn into expressed need or a demand, this could be due tothe lack of opportunity which may create conflict with the healthprofessional. Nevertheless, thenormative need could be that the smoker needs are not met, the professionalsmust offer counselling to the smoker who may be experiencing stress anddepression problem, but resources might not be available for the type of healthpromoting services.
Additionally, comparative need is where the smoker who haslung cancer have similar needs to those receiving help but do not services atan early stage of when they have signs of lung cancer such as difficulty inbreathing or coughing blood seek help as soon, unless it gets a later stage. To quotefrom Naidoo and Wills, (2010) they both expresses the concern of Dahlgrenand whitehead (1991) the inner layer suggest that health is partlydeterminate by smoker’s lifestyle factors such as patterns of smoking, thedownstream determinants of health is the actions of the individual who smokeand the community they live in for example in low and deprived social economicsareas which is the behaviour and lifestyle many chose to smoke. Moreover, thenext layer focuses on working and living conditions for a smoker if they areunemployed they are at risk of many smoking related illness such as lungcancer, whereas the area they live can become a barrier for them to accessservices as they might live in rural places, lack of services and no smokingcessation programs for the smokers about the risk of lung cancer or help aboutquitting. The outer layer highlightssuch as the socio-economics for smoker’s low social class unable to accessquick treatment and wait for treatment and screening, living in cultural somecultural see smoking as normal behaviour and brave and powerful and environmentforces such as economic development shifts in welfare systems might not provideall the support and help for smokers who are willing to smoke lack of financialhelp for the professionals to help the smokers, political change can be anegative impact on the smokers might not receive awareness less campaignsadvising the risk and less resources out there for smokers about quitting.