Englishas a Foreign Language is used for people that their countries were notcolonised by the English.
So, they speak English for business or social time.It is similar to ELF (later we will see the differences). There are around twobillion speakers between EFL and ELF.Theterm “lingua franca” is usually taken to mean ‘any lingual medium ofcommunication between people of different tongues, for whom it is a secondlanguage’ (Samarin, 1987:371). This lingua francas often have non-native speakers.
So,we defining ELF: “English as a lingua franca is used as a contact languageamong speakers from the different first language” (Jenkins, 2014: 143). And, Seidlhofer (2011: 7) said: “is any use of English amongspeakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicativemedium of choice, and often the only option”. ELF is not a variety becauseit has not fixed forms and it has fluid forms. Moreover, English as a linguafranca emphasises the process of communication and the accommodation isaccording to the context and the interlocutor. For mainstream linguistics ELFis a ‘broken English’ or an ‘interlanguage’, but it is only a way tocommunication between different first language for business or free time.Aswe said before, English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as a linguafranca (ELF) are so similar, but we can distinguish aspects like linguaculturalnorms, objectives, and processes. Thelinguacultural norms in EFL are pre-existing and re-affirmed, and in ELF arenegotiated.
The objectives in EFL is integration and to be membership in nativespeaker community, and in ELF searches the intelligibility and thecommunication in a non-native speaker or mixed native and non-native speaker’sinteraction. Finally, the process in EFL is the imitation and adoption and inELF is the accommodation and adaptation (Seidlhofer,2011: 18). Therefore, EFL and ELF may havethe same linguistic outcome but there is an errorin EFL versus a variant in ELF. English as international lingua francaLinguafrancas serve the purpose of providing a means of communication among peoplewho do not share a first language and this is what English does. Over the pastlast decades, English has become the primary lingua franca in the world. This hasimportant consequences for the language itself. English become the mostinternational language for a principal reason: English is the first foreign orother languages in school and university curricula around the world.
In the 21stcentury, the English communication is more than an international language, is the international language. According toCrystal (2006), ‘one in four of the world’s population are now capable of communicatingto a useful level in English’. Englishhas become an international language in two different ways: English has been’transported’ to different territories by its native speakers. Firstly, throughcolonisation and conquests. Then, ‘English has been ‘imported’ by people whowant to learn English as an important tongue despite their 1stlanguage. In the first case, as a result of colonial British rule, English hasbeen absorbed by different countries and it has been the local means ofnational communication in territories in what Kachru (1992) refer to as the’Outer Circle” (Seidlhofer, 2011). TheEnglish language is a media of communication among people with different nativelanguages.
‘This increasing extent is by development electronic issues and improvedmobility, that it is the responsible for the predominant international language– English as a lingua franca’ (Seidlhofer, 2011).Agood question is why is English the world’s primary lingua franca. According toCrystal (2003), there are various features that it proves:Firstly,there are historical reasons for the British or American imperialism legacy wasso important. They carried out all proceedings in English.
These involve theparliament, the civil service, the law courts, religious bodies, educationinstitutions and their publications in the English language as books, records…Secondly,the political reasons are English provides means of communication betweendifferent origin people, for example, in India. The widespread of English inmeans of communications as a newspapers, radio or television.Thirdly,the economic reasons are, obviously, the USA has the major economic position ininternational business and they work with English. Moreover, the advertisingand tourist factories and any multinational business wish to settle offices inEnglish-speaking territories. Then,the practical reasons are that English is the tongue of international maritime,policing, emergency services and air traffic control. And it is the speech ofbusiness, conferences and general tourism.
Suddenly,the intellectual reasons are the most of information in the world (80%) isexpressed in English as scientific, technological and academic information. Finally,the entertainment reasons are English is the chief language of music, popularculture, and advertising. It is also the language of the broadcasting,computers and video games, as well as of pornography and drugs. Crystal pointsout that English is easier to pronounce, a lot of vocabulary and has a simplegrammatical structure. English as a lingua franca and educationNowadays,English is the first language in education around the world.
It is because theEnglish language has the major input in different ways in our world. But,obviously, not all English speakers are a native speaker, so they use Englishas a foreign language or lingua franca to communicate with another people invarious situations. Then, in schools and higher education, the teachers teachEnglish as a lingua franca to their students will have a good level in Englishin their job relationships and their social time in English speaking countries,as a first or second language. ELFscholars have been appreciating the different kinds of English they needoutside the school or university, for example, as a lingua franca to establisha conversation with natives speakers from other first languages. In 1985, therewas an equal status between American English and British English. ‘The studentsthat use English as a lingua franca are confident using ELF, and they believethat the importance of ELF would grow’ (Ranta, 2010: 174).
The teachers want toorient their students to the native English in their exam. Nevertheless, “theythink the exam is not the best option today, their belief is practise the ‘realworld’ skills in class” (Ranta, 2010: 174).Accordingto Cogo and Dewey (2012), the implication of ELF for current pedagogicpractices is the teacher need to incorporate in the English curriculum morethan native English, as global topics. Focus on good communication skillsrather than grammatical and lexical accuracy (169-183).
Inconsonance with Seidlhofer (2011), ENL norms are not necessary forcommunication and the teachers should correspond to the needs of the users ofEnglish (196-198).Englishis in this age the global lingua franca, especially in education. Highereducation describe itself as ‘international’ because this attracts a lot ofstudents from others first languages.