During the Culture Revolution, English was restored but

During the isolationist years of the Cultural Revolution, lingual educators and their institutions were accused of “being all things bad—feudal, bourgeois, revisionist… hothouses for cultivating revisionist sprouts and intellectual aristocrats, “and English simply ceased to be taught. Shortly after the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) a political movement of ideological extremism started by Mao Tse-tung came to an end with his death in 1976, (Adamson&Morris, 1997). During that time, there was a saying”Without learning ABC, we can still make revolution”.After the Culture Revolution, English was restored but just the name. What the students learnt were only quotations from Mao Tse-tung and some other materials serving political ends. The motivation and interest of the teachers and students for English learning and teaching almost dropped to zero. In April 1978, Deng Xiaoping addressed the National Education Conference of the CCP, arguing the whole nation to raise the quality of Education, especially the level of teaching and learning of Science and culture, in order to better serve the socialist construction of our country. Then, foreign language teaching has been restored to a normal track. However, owing to the fact that Research on education theories, the compilation of textbooks and the qualification of teachers were still at a very low level, not much progress in TEFL has been made. English language education figured prominently in the drive for modernization (Adamson&Morris, 1997).Deng was convinced that advanced science and technology held the key to China’s modernization and that China would need to access scientific and technological advances worldwide to develop the scientific knowledge base needed for national revitalization (People’s Education Press, 1986). As Ashworth(1985) notes, “Educational policies are affected by economic and social policies, as these regulate the amount of money and resources that will be available to institutions as well as establishing the atmosphere that surroundings and permeates them.”The government’s “Four modernizations program” (modernization of industry, agriculture, science and technology and national defense), and “open-door” policies made great contributions to every field of China. Due to the two policies, the Chinese people are aware of the importance of learning English. Learning English has a fever swept throughout China. In 1977 the National Entrance Examination for higher education was restored, and foreign language took its place in the school curriculum as a required course. English became a popular foreign language, but the majority of students were beginners. Textbooks contained basic grammar knowledge and simple English words and technical terms, and short passages were used for classroom teaching. The concept of English study was nothing “more than memorizing grammar rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language” (Richard & Rodgers, p. 5). The Chinese leadership recognized the many educational deficiencies that would undermine national competitiveness and staged a new wave of educational reforms (CCP Central Committee & State Council, 1993). The Ministry Education launched a new campaign to reform EFL education at the turn of the 21st century. With the development of China’s economy and technology, china’s market needs plenty of English talents to communicate with the other countries.In 2008, the Beijing Summer Olympic Games brings out an enthusiasm for Studying English. English has become a fever in China, and that is remarkable. China joins in the WTO in 2001, more and more Chinese students are eager to communicate with the foreigners in every walks of field. Suddenly the TEFL market exploded, a lot of Kindergartens, private elementary and secondary schools, private language schools and companies in order to hire foreign teacher to strengthen Chinese’s English skills. English training classes sprouted out like mushroom after spring rain and attending evening English class become a trend. The most common exams related to English studies Chinese students have to take are comprehensive English language tests or “proficiency tests” (Zou, 2004) such as CET 4, CET 6 (College English Test, Band 4 and 6) and many local tests modeled on CET that in turn, modeled on the international English tests, e.g. IELTS. Those who want to continue their studies overseas have to pass the international proficiency tests. English majors in China have to take two more national exams (TEM 4 and TEM 8, Test for English Majors, Band 4 and 8); the first test is obligatory and serves as a prerequisite for obtaining a B.A. degree in English (Zhou, 2004).In Spain:In November 1975, because of the Franco’s death, Spain ended nearly 40 years of military dictatorship. Spain began to move towards a road to democratization. In 1978, Spain issued a new constitution. In 1986, Spain joined the European Union to further intergrated into the European family, and plays an increasingly important influence in the world. Spain in its development process, the most prominent is the strong ritual of democracy and the strengthening of local decentralization, this trend also greatly affected the development of education in Spain.  After the end of the military dictatorship in 1975, Spain went to the path of democracy and rule of law. Spanish education develops strictly in accordance with legal requirements. Whether it is all levels of classroom pre-school training standards, or all levels of class recruitment standards, are promulgated by the form of the law. Spain also implements the autonomous regional units of the local administrative autonomy management system. Although the state has a unified provision, but each place can be based on the characteristics of the region, the development of the corresponding provisions.